Editors-in-Chief: Yan-Nian Hui and Peter Wiedemann
Established in April, 2008
ISSN 2222-3959 print
ISSN 2227-4898 online
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2012, 5(2):119-124. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.01
Abstract:AIM: To investigate the mutually inductive interactions that occur between the lens and retinal tissue during the development of the vertebrate eye. METHODS: Cre-positive mice were mated with Cre-negative mice to generate 50% Cre-positive (conditional knockout, CKO) and 50% Cre-negative offspring (wild type, WT). The embryos were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned to a thickness of 4μm. The sections were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining. The primary antibody used for immunofluorescence detection was sc-9305 bone morphogenetic proteins (bmp7) (Santa Cruz, US). The secondary antibody was IF-0314 aG0IgG/FITC (Santa Cruz) in combination with the primary antibody. Bright-field and fluorescent images were taken. RESULTS: Changes in the lens and retina were associated with specific alterations to the expression of type IA BMP receptor [BMPR-IA (ALK3)], which have already been implicated in eye growth. BMPR-IA was required for lens and retinal growth, but was not essential for the formation of lens. We observed that the expression of Bmp7 in the embryonic retina was reduced in the ALK3 lens of CKO mice. This phenomenon became increasingly visible in accordance with embryo development. This apparent alteration was present at stage E15.5. CONCLUSION: ALK3 is essential for lens and retinal growth. Mutually inductive interactions between the lens and retina are present in the developing mouse eye.
2012, 5(2):125-132. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.02
Abstract:AIM: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease and a prevalent cause of visual impairment in developed countries. Many studies suggest that age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) is a second major susceptibility gene for AMD. At present, there is no functional information on this gene. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to detect the expression of ARMS2 in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and to investigate the effect of ARMS2 on the phagocytosis function of RPE cells. METHODS: Immunofluorescence and reverse transcriptase PCR were used to demonstrate the presence and location of ARMS2 in ARPE-19 (human retinal pigment epithelial cell line, ATCC, catalog No.CRL-2302) cells. siRNA was used to knock down ARMS2 mRNA, and the effects of the knockdown on the phagocytosis function of the ARPE-19 cells were evaluated via Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS). RESULTS: ARMS2 was present in ARPE-19 cells, localized in the cytosol of the perinuclear region. The expression of ARMS2 mRNA (messenger RNA) in ARPE-19 cells transfected with ARMS2-siRNA (small interfering RNA, 0.73±0.08) was decreased compared with normal cells (1.00±0.00) or with cells transfected with scrambled siRNA (0.95±0.13) (P＜0.05). After incubation of RPE cells with a latex beads medium for 12, 18, or 24 hours, the fluorescence intensities were 38.04±1.02, 68.92±0.92, and 78.00±0.12 in the ARMS2-siRNA-transfected groups, respectively, and 77.98±5.43, 94.87±0.60, and 98.30±0.11 in the scrambled siRNA-transfected groups, respectively. The fluorescent intensities of the same time points in the two groups were compared using Student’s t-test, and the p values were all less than 0.001 at the three different time points. CONCLUSION: There is endogenous expression of ARMS2 in ARPE-19 cells. ARMS2 plays a role in the phagocytosis function of RPE cells, and this role may be one of the mechanisms that participates in the development of AMD.
2012, 5(2):133-137. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.03
Abstract:AIM: To determine the effect of 7-methylxanthine (7-MX) on the posterior sclera of form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in pigmented rabbits. METHODS: Sixteen pigmented rabbits were monocularly deprived (MD) by suturing the right eyelids after natural eye opening (ten-day old) for a period of 30 days. Two groups of pigmented rabbits were fed either 7-MX (30 mg per kg body weight; n=8) or vehicle control (saline equal volume with 7-MX; n=8). Ocular refractions, axial lengths and body weights were measured at the start and the end of the experiment 30 days later. Electron microscopy was used to measure and determine the collagen fibril diameters in the posterior pole of sclera. RESULTS: In vehicle control MD pigmented rabbits, 30 days of MD produced -1.10D±0.78D of myopia and the axial length increased 0.51mm±0.09mm. In MD pigmented rabbits fed with 7-MX, 30 days of MD induced only -0.21D±0.11D of myopia and the axial length increased 0.07mm±0.10mm. There was significant change in axial length of vehicle control MD pigmented rabbits (13.11mm±0.19mm versus 12.60mm±0.06mm; P=0.03). The changes in refraction and axial length of two MD groups’ contralateral eyes during the 30 days were not significantly different (2.75D±0.27D versus 2.75D±0.35D, P>0.05; 12.60mm±0.06mm versus 12.45mm±0.14mm, P>0.05). The weights of the two groups pigmented rabbits had no significant changes (187g±22.1g versus 189g±19.3g, P>0.05). The diameter of scleral collagen fibers increased in both eyes of 7-MX treated pigmented rabbits. There was significant difference in collagen fibril diameters of inner layer (111.34nm±28.30nm versus 94.80nm±27.52nm, P=0.002) and outer layer (167.92nm±55.82 nm versus 144.04 nm±47.02nm, P=0.016) in the posterior sclera between the myopic eyes of vehicle control MD group and contralateral eyes of 7-MX treated MD group. CONCLUSION: 7-MX appears to prevent FDM in pigmented rabbits by remodeling the posterior sclera.
2012, 5(2):138-142. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.04
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the influence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on mouse photoreceptor-derived 661W cell survival and to determine the effect of PD98059, an inhibitor for MEK1 (the direct upstream activator of ERK1/2), and S3I201, a STAT3- specific inhibitor on 661W cell survival after H2O2 exposure. METHODS: The mouse photoreceptor-derived 661W cells were cultured. 661W cells were treated for 12 hours with different concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1mmol/L) of H2O2 and cell viability was determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide )(MTT) assay. 661W cells were treated with different concentrations H2O2 (0, 5, 10, 50, 500, 1000 μmol/L) for 15 minutes or 1mmol/L H2O2 for different time points (0,5,10,15,30 minutes), and p-Tyr705-STAT3, STAT3, Phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Thr202/Tyr204), ERK1/2 were surveyed by immunoblot analysis. After treatment with 50μmol/L PD98059, or S3I201 for 1 hour, the inhibition efficiency of cell signal pathways was analyzed by immunoblot analysis and the effects of inhibitors on cell viability were determined by MTT. RESULTS: After treating with different concentrations of H2O2for 12 hours, the cell viability of 661W cells decreased in concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05). Moreover, H2O2 induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and STAT3 in 661W cells (P<0.05). After pretreatment with 50μmol/L PD98059 or S3I201 for 1 hour, H2O2-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 or STAT3 was suppressed separately (P<0.05). Using PD98059 or S3I201 to inhibit ERK1/2 or STAT3 signal pathway, the cell viability of 661W cells decreased significantly (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that the exposure of 661W cells to H2O2 increased the activation of ERK1/2 and STAT3 signal pathways. Activation of these pathways is required for 661W cell survival following oxidant injury.
2012, 5(2):143-146. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.05
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of topical administration Natamycin, which is produced by China, in an experimental rabbit model of Fusarium solani keratitis, to provide experimental basis for the application of clinical safety. METHODS: Fusarium solani was induced in the right eye of 30 New Zealand rabbits. Forty-eight hours after inoculation, the animals were divided into 3 different treatment groups, 10 rabbit eyes of each group: Group 1 (Natamycin) treated with topical Natamycin, group 2 (Natacyn) treated with topical Natacyn, group 3 (control) treated with topical saline solution. The eyes of each group was examined clinically with slit lamp using ulcer scoring system on day 4, 10, 15, and 21 for status of healing, corneal vascularisation, iritis, hypopyon and macular nebula. The findings were recorded on day 10 and day 21. RESULTS: Ulcer score on day 10, day 15, day 21: The score of Natamycin group are 1.45±0.16, 1.08±0.11, 0.70±0.40. The score of Natacyn group are 1.35±0.12, 1.10±0.12, 0.65±0.35. the score of control group are 1.30±0.08, 3.63±0.28, 3.80±0.16. Natamycin group and Natacyn group were different from control group (P<0.01). There is no difference between Natamycin group and Natacyn group. Status of healing on day 10 and day 21: The cure rate of the Natamycin group is 90% on day 10, and 100% on day 21. The cure rate of the Natacyn group is 80% on day 10, and 100% on day 21.Natamycin group and Natacyn group were different from control group (P<0.01) There is no difference between Natamycin group and Natacyn group. Corneal vascularisation, iritis, hypopyon and macular nebula on day 10 and day 21: in Natamycin group, the number of the eyes which have Corner vascularisation, iritis, hypopyon and macular nebula are 2,0,0,2. In Natacyn group, the number of the eyes which have Corner vascularisation, iritis, hypopyon and macular nebula are 1,0,0,2. In control group, the number of the eyes which have Corner vascularisation, iritis, hypopyon and macular nebula are 9,9,8,9.Natamycin group and Natacyn group were different from control group (P<0.01). There is no difference between Natamycin group and Natacyn group. CONCLUSION: Natamycin was found to be effective in fungal keratitis, similar to Natacyn, and it can stop the corner vascularisation, iritis, hypopyon and macular nebula to happen. Natamyin manufactured in China is effective against fungal keratitis, with esay availability and low toxicity in its use.
2012, 5(2):147-150. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.06
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the effect of Collagen cross-linking on the prevention of melting in rabbit corneas after alkali burn. METHODS: Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into model control group and collagen cross-linking treatment group. The second group of rabbits received collagen cross linked treatment. Both groups were applied with antibiotic eye drops to prevent infection. The corneas were evaluated for melting, opacity, pathological and immunohistochemistry, record the changes when 28 days after the animals were killed. RESULTS: In the control group, 6 out of 8 rabbits showed corneal melting after injury (14±4) days, while two corneal perforated. In collagen cross-linking treatment group, one rabbit showed corneal melting after injury 23 days, without corneal perforation; corneal dissolution rate between the two groups was significantly different (P <0.05). Pathological examination suggested that in the treatment group, mild corneal edema, mild damage to collagen fibers, inflammatory cell infiltration was significantly less than the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed that corneal collagen fibers arranged in neat rows in the control group. CONCLUSION: Collagen cross-linking treatment not only can prevent and delay the corneal melting after alkali burn, but also can reduce the destruction of corneal collagen fibers and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the corneal tissue.
2012, 5(2):151-157. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.07
Abstract:AIM: To explore the effect of saturated hydrogen saline on blue light-induced retinal damage in rats. METHODS: The retinal damage of rats was induced by blue light exposure for 6 hours and examined 8 hours, 16 hours and 24 hours after the exposure. One hundred female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 included 30 rats received light exposure without any other treatment. Group 2 included 30 rats received light exposure with intraperitoneal injection of normal saline. Group 3 included 30 rats received light exposure with intraperitoneal injection of saturated hydrogen saline. And Group 4 included the other 10 rats which did not receive any treatment. The amount of intraperitoneal injection of saturated hydrogen saline and normal saline was calculated in the ratio of 1ml/100g of rat weight. Specimens were collected and processed by H-E staining, ultrastructure observation, biochemical measurement. Morphological changes were observed by light microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the retinal outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness was measured by IPP 6.0, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured by colorimetric determination at 532 nm. RESULTS: Although the structure of retina in Group 1 and Group 2 was injured heavily, the injury in Group 3 was mild. The differences between Group 1 and Group 2 were not significant. Compared with the rats in Group 1 and Group 2, the ones in Group 3 had more clearly demarcated retina structure and more ordered cells by light microscope and TEM observation. The ONL thicknesses (400 times) of four groups at each time point except between Group 1 and Group 2 were significantly different (P<0.05). The thicknesses of the ONL in Group 1 at three time points were 30.41±4.04μm, 26.11±2.82μm and 20.63±1.06μm, in Group 2 were 31.62±4.54μm, 25.08±3.63μm and 19.07±3.86μm, in Group 3 were 29.75±3.62μm, 28.83±1.97μm and 27.61±1.83μm. In Group 4 the mean of the thickness was 37.35±1.37μm. As time went by, the damage grew more severely. At 24h point, the differences were most significant. Compared with Group 4, the thickness was 46.23% thinner in Group 1, 50.29% thinner in Group 2 and 28.04% thinner in Group 3. The stack structures of membranous disc in Group 3 were injured slightly, but in Group 1 and Group 2 the damage was more obvious by TEM. Compared with Group 4 at each time point, the content of MDA in Group 1 was higher (P<0.05). The content of MDA in Group 3 was significantly lower than those of Group 1 (P<0.05) and Group 2 (P<0.05). Between the Group 1 and Group 2, the MDA concentration at each time point was no significant difference (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Saturated hydrogen saline could protect the retina from light-induced damage by attenuating oxidative stress.
2012, 5(2):158-163. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.08
Abstract:The damage of human corneal cells encounter with the problem of availability of corneal cells for replacement. Limitation of the source of corneal cells has been realized. An attempt of development of corneal epithelial-like cells from the human skin-derived precursor (hSKPs) has been made in this study. Combination of three essential growth factors: epidermal growth factor (EGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) could demonstrate successfully induction of hSKPs to differentiation into corneal cells. The induced cells expressed the appearance of markers of corneal epithelial cells as shown by the presence of keratin 3 (K3) by antibody label and Western blot assay. The K3 gene expression of induced hSKPs cells as shown by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology was also demonstrated. The presence of these markers at both gene and protein levels could lead to our conclusion that the directional transdifferentiation of hSKPs cells into corneal epithelial cells was successfully done under this cell induction protocol. The finding shows a newly available stem cell source can be obtained from easily available skin. Cells from autologous human skin might be used for corneal disorder treatment in future clinical application.
2012, 5(2):164-166. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.09
Abstract:AIM: To characterize the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of uveitis associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Chinese patients. METHODS: Two hundred and three patients with uveitis associated with AS followed-up in the Third Military Medical University Daping Hospital between 2005 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated in this study. Complete ophthalmological examinations were evaluated at baseline and during the follow-up period. The gender, age, follow-up time, mean frequency of uveitis onset, and accompanying eye examination findings, history, demographical parameters were reviewed. All the patients presented complete clinical and radiologic (sacroiliac, lumbar, dorsal and cervical spine, knee, ankle, shoulder, hip, elbow) evaluation. HLA-B27 typing was also searched. RESULTS: There were 203 patients diagnosed with AS associated uveitis. All showed sacroiliac X-ray changes indicative of AS. There were 184 male and 19 female patients. The average age of patients was 35±12 (range 18–50). Mean follow-up period was 2.4 years (1-5 years). Acute anterior uveitis was the most common type of uveitis in both genders. 121 eyes presented unilateral involvement (55.2%), and 92 eyes presented bilateral involvement (45.3%) with onset alternately. 22 eyes occurred hypopyon, 16 eyes were found anterior vitreous cells, 7 eyes were noted reactive macular edema or exudation, 29 eyes presented posterior synechiae of iris, and 14 eyes presented cataract, 9 eyes presented secondary glaucoma, 2 eyes presented bend corneal degeneration and 1 eyes presented atrophy of eyeball. At the final visit, uveitis was well controlled in most patients. CONCLUSION: AS associated with uveitis in Chinese patients mainly manifests as acute anterior uveitis. A combination of corticosteroids with other mydriasis agents is effective for most AS associated with uveitis patients. In general, the prognosis is good in these cases.
2012, 5(2):167-171. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.10
Abstract:AIM: To present the results of implantation of Iakymenko keratoprosthesis in five patients with vascularized corneal leukoma caused by severe ocular injury. METHODS: Iakymenko keratoprosthesis was implanted into 5 eyes of 5 patients: 4 patients were suffered from chemical burns and 1 patient from explosive injury. The preoperative visual acuity ranged from light perception to hand motion. The implantation surgery was composed of two-stage procedures. The follow-up period was from 9 months to 11 years. The outcome measures were visual acuity, retention, and complications of the keratoprosthesis. RESULTS: Vision improvements were achieved in most patients. All keratoprosthesis were retained within the follow-up period. Corneal melting occurred in one patient and fibrous closure in another patient, both of which were successfully treated. Retinal detachment occurred in one patient after surgery. CONCLUSION: Iakymenko keratoprosthesis seems to be a promising alternative for the patients with severe corneal injury, but further investigation is needed to evaluate the role of Iakymenko keratoprosthesis.
2012, 5(2):172-176. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.11
Abstract:AIM: To test the hypothesis that amblyopic neuroretina may have an altered thickness when compared to the normal. METHODS: Twenty-five amblyopic, young patients between the ages of 7 and 11 years old were studied. The interested neuroretina areas are defined into 10 sub-regions according to superior-inferior, nasal-temoral, and peri-para axis, which cross the fovela structure. The thicknesses of ten, defined macular regions were separately measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and analyzed by t-test. RESULTS: The average thickness of neuroretina in the exact foveola of the amblyopic eyes is larger than that of normal eyes (P<0.05), but the other nine regions have no significant difference. Interestingly, in both the normal and amblyopic eyes, the temporal area looks thinner than other quadrants (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Thickness alteration may be associated with amblyopic disorders in young patients. Studying a larger volume of subjects of similar age is required to confirm this observation.
2012, 5(2):177-180. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.12
Abstract:AIM: To investigate the possible relationship between the influencing factors occurring before and during birth in full-term infants and the outcome of retinopathy. METHODS: Totally 816 full-term infants admitted in the neonate intensive unit of Boai Hospital of Zhongshan between 1 May, 2008 and 30 June, 2011 were included in the study. Fundus examination was performed and evaluated individually on them at the age of 48 hours after delivery, 2 weeks and 1 month. Some possible risk factors happening prenatally or during delivery such as pregnant related hypertension, placenta previa, placental abruption etc, as well as some neonatal risk factors such as neonatal asphyxia, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), low birth weight etc, were recorded and evacuated. Then the effect of the risk factors of full-term infants on retinopathy was studied. RESULTS: The incidence of retinal hemorrhage of full-term infants with prenatal pregnant related hypertension (PRH) of the mother (43.6%) was significantly higher than that of full-term infants without (8.0%). (P<0.001). The incidence of retinal hemorrhage of full-term infants with neonatal asphyxia and /or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)(29.3%) was significantly higher than that of those without (15.7%), but correlation was not found between the severity of retina hemorrhage and the degree of hypoxic disease. A pale color of optic disc was associated with a low birth weight of full-term infant. Full-term infants with birth weigh less than 2500g had a significant higher incidence of retinopathy than those with birth weight equal or more than 2500g ( P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The main influencing factors which lead to retinopathy of high risk full-term infants are prenatal factors such as PRH, and some neonatal risk factors such as asphyxia, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and low birth weight.
2012, 5(2):181-185. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.13
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of intralesional radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of periorbital syringomas. METHODS: We tried the intralesional radiofrequency ablation for 64 patients with periorbital syringomas from 2007 to 2011. The operation was performed under 2.5 loupe magnifications. The handpiece was assembled with a needle electrode and connected to the radiofrequency ablation apparatus. The electrode was then inserted into the target lesions in dermis and delivering injury to the base of these tumors. Results were assessed clinically by comparing pre- and post-treatment photographs and patient satisfaction rates. RESULTS: Clinical improvement increased with each subsequent treatment session. The percent of patients whose clinic improvement grade were≥3 after each session was respectively 71.9%(Session1), 83.3%(Session2), and 100%(Session3). The statistical results indicated the concordance of the clinical assessment and the satisfaction level of patients (kappa=0.78 of the session1; kappa=0.82 of the session2). The majority of patients had good or excellent cosmetic results. Postoperatively, there were no permanent side effects or recurrences. CONCLUSION: As a new technique of minimally invasion, the intralesional radiofrequency ablation was found to be an effective, inexpensive, highly precise and safe way of treating periorbital syringomas.
2012, 5(2):186-189. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.14
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in Chinese patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX). METHODS: Medical records of 16 patients (20 eyes) with PEX who presented to our institution between July 2008 and June 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Thirteen eyes had combined glaucoma. The information of five apparently normal fellow eyes in these patients was also recorded. Left eyes of 20 patients with bilateral senile cataracts but no other eye disease were included as controls. Specular microscopy was performed in all eyes to analyze for corneal endothelial cell density and morphology. Cell density, coefficient of variation in cell size, and percentage of hexagonal cells in corneal endothelium were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean corneal endothelial cell density in the PEX eyes was 2298±239 cells/mm2, significantly lower than that in the cataract eyes (2652±18 cells/mm2, P=0.026), but there were no significant differences in coefficient of variation of cell size and frequency of hexagonality between these two groups. No significant differences in the three parameters were found between the apparently normal fellow eyes and the PEX eyes or the cataract eyes, or between the PEX eyes with and without glaucoma. CONCLUSION: Corneal endothelial cell density may decrease in Chinese patients with PEX. The development of glaucoma in PEX eyes does not seem to be related with the change in corneal endothelial cell density or morphology.
2012, 5(2):190-195. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.15
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) to prevent the progression of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) corneal ectasia. METHODS: In a prospective, nonrandomized, single-centre study, CXL was performed in 20 eyes of 11 patients who had LASIK for myopic astigmatism and subsequently developed keratectasia.The procedure included instillation of 0.1% riboflavin-20% dextrane solution 30 minutes before UVA irradiation and every 5 minutes for an additional 30 minutes during irradiation. The eyes were evaluated preoperatively and at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month intervals. The complete ophthalmologic examination comprised uncorrected visual acuity, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell count, ultrasound pachymetry, corneal topography, and in vivo confocal microscopy. RESULTS: CXL appeared to stabilise or partially reverse the progression of post-LASIK corneal ectasia without apparent complication in our cohort. UCVA and BCVA improvements were statistically significant(P＜0.05) beyond 12 months after surgery (improvement of 0.07 and 0.13 logMAR at 1 year, respectively). Mean baseline flattest meridian keratometry and mean steepest meridian keratometry reduction (improvement of 2.00 and 1.50 diopters(D), respectively) were statistically significant (P＜0.05) at 12 months postoperatively. At 1 year after CXL, mean endothelial cell count did not deteriorate. Mean thinnest cornea pachymetry increased significantly. CONCLUSION: The results of the study showed a long-term stability of post-LASIK corneal ectasia after crosslinking without relevant side effects. It seems to be a safe and promising procedure to stop the progression of post-LASIK keratectasia, thereby avoiding or delaying keratoplasty.
2012, 5(2):196-201. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.16
Abstract:AIM: To describe the characteristics of modulation transfer function (MTF) of anterior corneal surface, and obtain the the normal reference range of MTF at different spatial frequencies and optical zones of the anterior corneal surface in myopes. METHODS: Four hundred eyes from 200 patients were examined under SIRIUS corneal topography system. Phoenis analysis software was applied to simulate the MTF curves of anterior corneal surface at vertical and horizontal meridians at the 3, 4, 5 , 6, 7mm optical zones of cornea .The MTF values at spatial frequencies of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 cycles/degree (c/d) were selected. RESULTS: The MTF curve of anterior corneal surface decreased rapidly from low to intermediate frequency (0-15cpd) at various optical zones of cornea, the value decreased to 0 slowly at higher frequency (>15cpd). With the increase of the optical zones of cornea, MTF curve decreased gradually. 3) In the range of 3 mm- 6 mm optical zones of the cornea, the MTF values measured at horizontal meridian were greater than the corresponding values at horizontal meridian of each spatial frequency, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). At 7 mm optical zones of cornea, the MTF values measured at horizontal meridian were less than the corresponding values at vertical meridian at 10-60 spatial frequencies(cpd), and the difference was statistically significant in 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 cpd (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: MTF can be used to describe the imaging quality of optical systems at anterior corneal surface objectively in detail.
2012, 5(2):202-207. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.17
Abstract:AIM: To investigate the levels of serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecules-1(sICAM-1) and neutrophilic expression of CD18 in patients with various stages of diabetic retinopathy and to determine their different expression pattern in the development of diabetic retinopathy(DR). METHODS: Levels of serum sICAM-1 and CD18 on the surface of neutrophile were measured in 41 DR patients, they were classified in three subgroups according to the stage of retinopathy as determined by fund’s ophthalmoscopy; 10 control subjects were also studied. sICAM-1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and CD18 by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The neutrophilic CD18 expression and serum sICAM-1 level were all significantly elevated in all diabetic subgroups compared to control subjects (P<0.01). The differences of CD18 and sICAM-1 among the diabetic subgroups were significant in CD18 but not in sICAM-1. The progression of retinopathy was associated with an increase both in CD18 and in sICAM-1 levels by simple correlation analysis (β=0.74, P<0.001; β=0.38, P<0.01, respectively). But stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that only CD18 was independent determinant of retinopathy (β=1.04, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the contribution of endothelial and neutrophilic activation in the development of DR as indicated by increased levels of CD18 and sICAM-1. However, a direct implication of CD18 and ICAM-1 in the progression of DR can be supported only in the CD18 but not ICAM-1. CD18 and ICAM-1 may play different role in the development of diabetic retinopathy.
2012, 5(2):208-211. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.18
Abstract:AIM: To investigate the treatment status and prognosis of space-occupying lacrimal gland lesions at one tertiary eye center in China. METHODS: A retrospective clinical study was performed on 95 patients with space-occupying lesions of the lacrimal gland surgically treated at the Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University from 2003 to 2007. The reviewed clinical data included age, gender, side of the lesion, duration of signs and symptoms, histopathological diagnosis, treatment modality, recurrence (local, regional, and distant metastasis) and survival. RESULTS: Of the 95 cases (99 eyes), pleomorphic adenomas were the most common lesions (43 cases), followed by lymphoid disorders (14), inflammatory pseudotumors (11), carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenomas (11), and adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC, 6). There were 8 patients with relapsed pleomorphic adenomas. Five of these 8 cases had malignant pathological changes. All patients with ACC had metastasis and three of them died during their follow-up. CONCLUSION: Our study indicated that the most common lacrimal gland lesions were pleomorphic adenomas. Multiple recurrence and surgical procedures may increase the risk of tumor progression. ACC had a high incidence of tumor metastasis and a poor prognosis.
2012, 5(2):212-216. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.19
Abstract:AIM: To investigate the specialty of transcranial surgery through pterional approach for removal of cranio-orbital tumors, introduce the ophthalmological experiences of entering the orbit to reduce the incidence rate of associated complications of this operation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a series of 37 cases involving patients who underwent transcranial surgery through pterional approach for treatment of cranio-orbital tumors in our department in the past 8 years. Pterion approach craniotomy was performed to all patients. After removing tumors in the skull by the neurosurgeon, ophthalmologist removed tumors in orbit. We took measures below to decrease complications, including grounding optic canal through an abrasive drilling when necessary, hanging various extraocular muscles to be exposed for protection, refrigerating by refrigeration heads to remove tumors, at last sewing up orbit septum after surgery. ? RESULTS: Tumors were removed completely in 32 cases, and incomplete in 5 cases due to extensive invasion into the cavernous sinus or sphenoid sinus. Of all the cases, benign tumors were demonstrated in 28 cases (75.6%, 28/37) and malignant in 9(24.3%, 9/37). The most common lesion type was meningioma in 11 cases (29.7%, 11/37). Extraocular muscles (EOM) impairment, occurring in 21 cases (56.7%, 21/37), was the most frequent postoperative complication. The most serious consequence was vision loss occurred in 4 cases (10.8%, 4/37). Other complications, such as 11 cases of transient blepharoptosis 29.7%(11/37), 5 cases of mydriasis in 13.5% (5/7); 2 cases of cerebrospinal rhinorrhea in 5.4% (2/37). CONCLUSION: Cranio-orbital tumors can be removed completely using transcranial approach, and the pterional approach offers excellent exposure. Cooperation of interdisciplinary team of neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists conduces to full use of respective professional advantages. The experience of ophthalmic operation technology can decrease occurrence of ocular complications after surgery.
2012, 5(2):217-221. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.20
Abstract:AIM: To find out the outcome of laser photocoagulation in clinically significant macular edema (CSME) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) METHODS: It was a prospective, non-controlled, case series study enrolling 81 eyes of 64 patients with CSME between August 2008 and January 2010. All patients received modified grid photocoagulation with frequency doubled Nd: YAG laser. Each patient was evaluated in terms of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and regression or progression of maculopathy after laser therapy at 1, 3 and 6 months. Spearman’s correlation test was used to show the correlation between BCVA and total macular volume (TMV). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare among groups and independent t-test was used to compare in each group. RESULTS: There is high correlation between BCVA and TMV (P≤0.001). BCVA improved in 50.6 %, remained static in 39.5% and deteriorated in 9.9% patients after 6 month of treatment. The Baseline TMV (mean and SD) were 9.26±1.83, 10.4±2.38), 11.5±3.05), 8.89±0.75 and 9.47±1.98mm3 for different OCT patterns, ST (sponge like thickening), CMO (cystoid macular edema), SFD (subfoveal detachment), VMIA (Vitreo macular interface abnormality) and average TMV respectively (P=0.04). After 6 months of laser treatment, the mean TMV decreased from 9.47±1.98mm3 to 8.77±1.31mm3 (P=0.01). In ST there was significant decrease in TMV, P=0.01, Further within these groups at 6 months, they were significantly different, P=0.01. CONCLUSION: OCT showed the different morphological variant of CSME while the response of treatment is different. TMV decreased the most and hence showed the improvement in vision after 6 months of laser treatment. In the era of Anti vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), efficacy of laser seems to be in shadow but it is still first line of treatment in developing nation like Nepal where antiVEGFs may not be easily available and affordable.
2012, 5(2):222-225. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.21
Abstract:AIM: To study the distribution of ocular higher-order aberrations(HOAs) and mesopic pupil size in individuals screened for refractive surgery. METHODS: Ocular HOAs and mesopic pupil size were studied in 2 458 eyes of 1 240 patients with myopia, myopic astigmatism and compound myopic astigmatism and 215 eyes of 110 patients with hyperopia, hyperopic astigmatism and compound hyperopic astigmatism using the Zywave aberrometer (Busch& Lomb). All patients had correctable refractive errors without a history of refractive surgery or underlying diseases. Root-mean-square values of HOAs, total spherical aberration, total coma and mesopic pupil size were analyzed. Ocular HOAs were measured across a ≥ 6.0 mm pupil, and pupil size measurements were performed under the mesopic condition. RESULTS: The mean values of HOAs, total spherical aberration and total coma in the myopic group were 0.369μm, ±0.233, 0.133± 0.112μm and 0.330±0.188μm, respectively. In the hyperopic group the mean values of HOAs, total spherical aberration and total coma were 0.418μm ±0.214, 0.202±0.209μm and 0.343±0.201μm, respectively. Hyperopes showed greater total HOAs (P<0.01) and total spherical aberration (P<0.01) compared to myopes. In age-matched analysis, only the amount of total spherical aberration was higher in the hyperopic group (P=0.05). Mesopic pupil size in the myopic group was larger (P≤0.05). CONCLUSION: The results suggested that significant levels of HOAs were found in both groups which are important for planning refractive surgeries on Iranians. There were significantly higher levels of total spherical aberration in hyperopes compared to myopes. Mesopic pupil size was larger in myopic group.
2012, 5(2):226-230. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.22
Abstract:AIM: To report the effectiveness and safety of primary 23-Gauge (G) vitreoretinal surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). METHODS: In this retrospective study, 49 eyes of 49 consecutive patients who underwent primary 23-G transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV) for RRD between January 2007 and July 2009 at our institution were evaluated. RESULTS: Mean follow-up time was 8.9±7.7 months (1-28 months). Retinal reattachment was achieved with a single operation in 47(95.9%) of 49 eyes. In two eyes (4.1%), retinal redetachment due to new breaks was successfully treated with reoperation using the 23-G TSV system. Mean logMAR visual acuity was 2.01±0.47 preoperatively and 1.3±0.5 postoperatively (P<0.001, Paired t-test). Mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) was 14.1±2.8mmHg. Mean postoperative IOP was 12.3±3.6mmHg at 1 day, 13.1±2.1mmHg at 1 week, 14.3±2.2mmHg at 1 month. Iatrogenic peripheral retinal break was observed in 1 eye (2.0%) intraoperatively. No sutures were required to close the scleral or conjunctival openings, and no eyes required convertion of surgery to 20-G vitrectomy. CONCLUSION: Primary 23-G TSV system was observed to be effective and safe in the treatment of RRD.
2012, 5(2):231-237. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.23
Abstract:AIM: To assess whether regular Mediterranean diet and regular intake of vegetables may reduce the risk of blindness, cataract, and glaucoma in these type 2 diabetics. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was carried out among known black diabetics admitted at the diabetic clinics of Kinshasa, between October 2008 and March 2009. The Mediterranean-style dietary score (MSDPS) was used to characterize a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern in the study population using the Harvard semi quantitative FFQ adapted for Africa. RESULTS: Five hundred Type 2 diabetic patients were included in this study (48% of males; 40% aged ≥60 years). There was a significant association between blindness, cataract and aging; between blindness (P<0.05), cataract (P<0.05), glaucoma (P<0.05), and physical inactivity; between blindness (P<0.05), cataract (P<0.0001), glaucoma (P<0.01) and high SES, and a very significant association between blindness (P<0.0001), cataract (P<0.0001), glaucoma (P<0.0001) and exposure to sunlight. There was also a significant association between blindness, glaucoma, and male sex. Regular intake of Mediterranean diet, Brassica Rapa, beans, Abelmoschus, Musa acuminata reduced significantly the risk of blindness, cataract and glaucoma. CONCLUSION: Regular intake of Mediterranean diet, Brassica Rapa, beans, Abelmoschus, and Musa acuminata may significantly reduce the risk of blindness or its major causes among type 2 diabetes mellitus in Africa.
2012, 5(2):238-241. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.24
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcomes in patients who underwent revision of external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) and nasal intubation by bicanalicular silicone tubing (BSTI) under endonasal endoscopic guidance. METHODS: Data from 28 patients with recurrent dacryocystitis were retrospectively reviewed. Revision external DCR and bicanalicular nasal intubation by silicone tubing under endonasal endoscopic guidance was performed in 28 eyes of 28 patients. The patients were evaluated with respect to the reason of recurrence, time to recurrence, time to revision, duration of follow-up and surgical success. RESULTS: Endoscopic endonasal examination detected an osteotomy-side obstruction by the excessive granulation tissue in 24 patients (86%), nasal septal deviation in three patients (10%) and nasal polyp in one patient (4%). Recurrence occurred after a mean duration of 5.3±3.7 months following the first operation. The mean time between the first DCR operation and the revision DCR was 11.5 ± 9.3 months. After a mean follow-up of 14.9±7.8 months, the rate of anatomic success alone was 85% (24/28); the rate of subjective success was 78% (22/28). CONCLUSION: Revision external DCR and bicanalicular nasal intubation by silicone tubing under endonasal endoscopic guidance can be recommended in patients with recurrent dacryocystitis as a surgical approach that achieves satisfactory objective and subjective success rates.
2012, 5(2):242-246. DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.25
Abstract:AIM: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world and complement factor H (CFH) polymorphism has been found to associate with the AMD. To investigate whether the Y402H variant in CFH is associated with AMD in Chinese populations, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to estimate the magnitude of the gene effect and the possible mode of action. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed using data available from ten case-control studies assessing association between the CFH Y402H polymorphism and AMD in Chinese populations involving 1538 AMD. Data extraction and study quality assessment were performed in duplicate. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% con?dence intervals (CIs) an allele contrast and genotype contrast were estimated using ?xed- effects models. The Q-statistic test was used to assess heterogeneity, and Funnel plot was used to evaluate publication bias. RESULTS: Seven of ten case-control studies were neovascular AMD, and few studies came from west and north of China. There was strong evidence for association between CFH and AMD in Chinese population, with those having risk allele C 2.35 times more likely to have AMD than subjects with T allele. Evidence of publication bias was not observed in our meta-analysis. CONCLUTION: This meta-analysis summarizes the strong evidence for an association between CFH and AMD in Chinese and indicates each C allele increasing the odds of AMD by 2.33-fold.But more evidences about the relation between CFH polymorphism and different type of Chinese AMD from various district were needed.
Editors-in-Chief: Yan-Nian Hui and Peter Wiedemann
Established in April, 2008
ISSN 2222-3959 print
ISSN 2227-4898 online