Editors-in-Chief: Yan-Nian Hui and Peter Wiedemann
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ISSN 2222-3959 print
ISSN 2227-4898 online
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2017, 10(10):1483-1489. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.01
Abstract:AIM: To investigate the neuroprotective effect of gastrodin on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in an acute ocular hypertension (AOH) rat model and to identify its possible mechanism. METHODS: AOH rat model was performed in a randomly selected eye by anterior chamber perfusion and either received an intraperitoneal injection with various concentrations of gastrodin or normal saline. After 2wk, the rats were sacrificed. FluoroGold was used to label survival RGCs. Immunostaining with anti-Iba1 in the retinal flat mounts to calculate the microglia density in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Changes in microglial cytokines, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) were examined with Western blot and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Expression levels of total and phosphorylated p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) were determined by Western blot. RESULTS: Results showed that AOH induced significant loss of RGCs and severe microglia activation in the GCL. Besides, AOH increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and promoted the release of microglial cytokines in the retinas. Intraperitoneal injection with dose-dependent gastrodin significantly reduced the loss of RGCs and inhibited retinal microglia activation, accompanied with the decreased expression levels of microglial cytokines and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: Gastrodin exerts a neuroprotective effect on RGCs in an acute glaucoma animal model via inhibiting microglia activation and microglial-mediated neuroinflammation. The finding demonstrates the potential application of gastrodin in the neuroprotective therapy of acute glaucoma and other retinal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by microglia activation and RGCs death.
2017, 10(10):1490-1494. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.02
Abstract:AIM: To examine the association of genetic polymorphisms (-308)G/A TNFα, (+250)A/G Ltα, (+36)A/G TNFR1, (+1663)A/G TNFR2 with the development of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) among people in Central Russia. METHODS: The study sample included 443 individuals, of which 252 patients with POAG and 191 individuals in the control group. Genotyping of (-308)G/A TNFα, (+250)A/G Ltα, (+36)A/G TNFR1, (+1663)A/G TNFR2 was performed using polymerase chain reaction. The distribution of alleles and genotypes of the studied DNA markers in the groups was examined by 2×2 contingency tables and χ2 with the Yates’s correction for continuity and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Allele (-308)G TNFα (Р=0.01, OR=1.78, 95%CI 1.12-2.85) was identified as a risk factor for POAG. Homozygotes (-308) AA TNFα are at a lowest risk for development of the disease (Р=0.01, OR=0.0005). The following combination of genetic variants of cytokines were associated with a reduced risk of POAG: (+1663)A TNFR2 and (+250)G Ltα (OR=0.34) CONCLUSION: Genetic polymorphisms (-308)G/A TNFα, (+250)A/G Ltα, (+1663)A/G TNFR2 associated with the development of POAG in the population of Central Russia.
2017, 10(10):1495-1503. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.03
Abstract:AIM: To investigate the effects of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) on microglia activation and Sirtuin type 1 (Sirt1) in rats with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS: Rats were divided into norm (N) group, model (M) group and HRS (H) group. Rats in M and H groups were given saline and HRS respectively prior to and after administration of MNU. At one day (d1) and d3 afterwards, electroretinogram and histological examination were performed to confirm the effects of HRS on retinal function and structure of MNU-induced RP. Immunofluorescence staining of anti-ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), a maker of microglia cells, was performed, with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for its mRNA quantification. Moreover, Sirt1 mRNA and protein expression in the retinas were detected by Western blot and qRT-PCR. RESULTS: HRS preserved the retinal function and mitigated the reduction of photoreceptor degeneration in MNU-treated retinas. The presence of microglia cells was somewhat more obvious in H group than that in M group at d1. HRS suppressed the further activation of microglia cells, with the number of microglia cells less than that of M group at d3. Results of qRT-PCR of Iba1 were consistent with those of immunofluorescence staining, with the mRNA expression of Iba1 in H group more intensive than that of M group at d1 (P<0.05), while less than that of M group at d3 (P<0.05). Furthermore, the Sirt1 mRNA and protein expression decreased after MNU administration, while HRS mitigated the MNU-induced downregulation of Sirt1. CONCLUSION: HRS can effectively keep microglia activation induced by MNU to an appropriate extent, while upregulate Sirt1 in MNU-induced RP.
2017, 10(10):1504-1509. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.04
Abstract:AIM: To investigate whether the human olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells (OM-MSCs) can differentiate into photoreceptor cells in vitro. METHODS: Through the olfactory mucosa adherent method, olfactory mucosa was isolated, cultured and identified in vitro among mesenchymal stem cells. The cell surface markers were analyzed by flow cytometry, induced to differentiate into retinal photoreceptor cells in vitro, and the expression of rhodopsin was observed and identified by Immunofluorescence and Western blot methods. RESULTS: OM-MSCs from human were spindle cell-based, and showing radial colony arrangement. OM-MSCs were negative for CD34, CD45 and CD105, but positive for CD73 and CD90. Following induction, a strong positive reaction was produced by photoreceptor specific marker rhodopsin in the cells.
2017, 10(10):1510-1515. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.05
Abstract:AIM: To assess the expression of nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in rat retina after optic nerve transection. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into normal control group, sham group and operation group, and used for establishing an animal model of optic nerve transection. Retinal specimen of each group was collected at 3, 48h, 7 and 14d postoperative. Nestin and GFAP expressions on sagittal sections were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining, and protein extraction was analyzed by Western blot. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analysis showed that nestin positive staining was rarely detected in normal control group and sham group, while sham group showed weak positive staining at 3h postoperative, the reaction gradually increased at 48h postoperative, and reached its maximum at 7d postoperative, and then decreased at 14d postoperative. Compared to the expression of GFAP, there was not statistically significant obvious difference among three groups (P>0.05). Result of Western blot method was consistent with that of immunohistochemical method. CONCLUSION: The expression of nestin increased in a time dependent fashion in Müller cells of retina following optic nerve transection, which was statistically significant, but there was no obvious difference in GFAP expression. The results indicate that an increase in colloid synthesis in retina following optic nerve transection can improve the retinal neurons’ environment.
2017, 10(10):1516-1520. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.06
Abstract:AIM: To investigate the correlation between lumican (LUM) gene and high myopia in a Southern Chinese population. METHODS: The study comprised of 95 high myopia patients with a spherical equivalent ≤?6.5 diopters (D). The control group recruited 95 individuals with a spherical equivalent ranging from ?0.5 D to +0.5 D. Direct sequencing was used to detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LUM gene in coding region. Genotype distributions were tested for Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium. Genotypic and allelic frequencies were analyzed through Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS: We identified 3 SNPs of the LUM gene: LUM c.32 (rs577456426), LUM c.507 (rs17853500) and LUM c.849 (rs181915277). Among the three SNPs, the genotype and allele frequencies of rs17853500 showed a significant difference between patients and control subjects (P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in rs181915277 and rs577456426 between the two groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: LUM c.507 polymorphism may be a risk factor for the pathogenesis of high myopia in the Southern Chinese population.
2017, 10(10):1521-1527. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.07
Abstract:AIM: To determine the effects of peripheral corneal thickness (PCT) on dynamic contour tonometry(DCT) and Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT). METHODS: A cross-sectional study. We created a software which calculates the corneal contour (CC) as a function of the radius from the corneal apex to each pixel of the contour. The software generates a central circumference with a radius of 1 mm and the remainder of the cornea is segmented in 5 rings concentric with corneal apex being its diameter not constant around the corneal circumference as a consequence of the irregular CC but keeping constant the diameter of each ring in each direction of the contour. PCT was determined as the mean thickness of the most eccentric ring. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) regression was used to determine the pattern of the relationship between PCT and both DCT and GAT respectively. Thereafter, two multivariable linear regression models were constructed. In each of them, the dependant variable was intraocular pressure (IOP) as determined using GAT and DCT respectively. In both of the models the predictive variable was PCT though LOWESS regression pattern was used to model the relationship between the dependant variables and the predictor one. Age and sex were also introduced control variables along with their first-degree interactions with PCT. Main outcome measures include amount of IOP variation explained through regression models (R2) and regression coefficients (B). RESULTS: Subjects included 109 eyes of 109 healthy individuals. LOWESS regression suggested that a 2nd-degree polynomial would be suitable to model the relationship between both DCT and GAT with PCT. Hence PCT was introduced in both models as a linear and quadratic term. Neither age nor sex nor interactions were statistically significant in both models. For GAT model, R2 was 17.14% (F=9.02; P=0.0002), PCT linear term B was -1.163 (95% CI: -1.163, -0.617). PCT quadratic term B was 0.00081 (95% CI: 0.00043, 0.00118). For DCT model R2 was 14.28% (F=9.29; P=0.0002), PCT linear term B was -0.712 (95% CI: -1.052, -0.372), PCT quadratic term was B=0.0005 (95% CI: 0.0003, 0.0007). CONCLUSION: DCT and GAT measurements are conditioned by PCT though this effect, rather than linear, follows a 2nd-degree polynomial pattern.
2017, 10(10):1528-1533. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.08
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate and compare the clinical outcomes with a diffractive bifocal and trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) during a 12-month follow-up. METHODS: Prospective comparative study including 75 eyes of 38 patients (44-70y) undergoing uneventful cataract surgery. Each patient was randomly assigned to one type of IOL, bifocal (35 eyes) or trifocal (40 eyes). Visual, refractive, and contrast sensitivity changes were evaluated in a 12-month follow-up. The binocular defocus curve was also measured at 12mo postoperatively. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences between groups were found in postoperative uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuities (P≥0.276). Postoperative corrected near visual acuity (33 cm) was significantly better in the trifocal group during all follow-up (P≤0.004) as well as 6-month uncorrected near (P=0.008) and distance-corrected near visual acuities (P=0.016) (33/40 cm). Significantly better uncorrected intermediate and distance corrected-intermediate visual acuity were found during all follow-up in the trifocal group (P<0.001), which was consistent with differences among groups in binocular defocus curve. Differences among groups in contrast sensitivity were minimal, being only significant at 6 months for some low to medium spatial frequencies (P≤0.006). CONCLUSION: Bifocal and trifocal diffractive IOLs are able to provide an effective visual restoration which is maintained during a 12-month follow-up, with a clear benefit of the trifocal IOL for the intermediate vision.
2017, 10(10):1534-1538. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.09
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate and compare structural optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based parameters, such as Bruch’s membrane opening-minimum rim width (BMO-MRW), and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in glaucoma patients with visual field (VF) defects, and to correlate both to mean deviation (MD) values of obtained standard achromatic perimetry (SAP) examinations. METHODS: Patients with glaucoma and glaucomatous VF defects were enrolled in this prospective study and compared to age-matched healthy individuals. All study participants underwent a full ophthalmic examination and VF testing with SAP. Peripapillary RNFL thickness and BMO-MRW were acquired with SD-OCT. Correlation analyses between obtained global functional and global as well as sectorial structural parameters were calculated. RESULTS: A consecutive series of 30 glaucomatous right eyes of 30 patients were included and compared to 36 healthy right eyes of 36 individuals in the control group. Global MD of values correlated significantly with global RNFL (Pearson corr. coeff: 0.632, P=0.001) and global BMO-MRW (Pearson corr. coeff: 0.746, P<0.001) values in the glaucoma group. Global MD and sectorial RNFL or BMO-MRW values correlated less significantly. In the control group, MD values did not correlate with RNFL or BMO-MRW measurements. A subgroup analysis of myopic patients (>4 diopters) within the glaucoma group (n=6) revealed a tendency for higher correlations between MD and BMO-MRW than MD and RNFL measurements. CONCLUSION: In a clinical setting, RNFL thickness and BMO-MRW correlate similarly with global VF sensitivity in glaucoma patients with BMO-MRW showing higher correlations in myopic glaucoma patients.
2017, 10(10):1539-1544. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.10
Abstract:AIM: To assess peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and choroidal thickness obtained with enhanced depth imaging (EDI) mode compared with those obtained without EDI mode using Heidelberg Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: Fifty eyes of 25 normal healthy subjects and 32 eyes of 20 patients with different eye diseases were included in the study. All subjects underwent 3.4 mm diameter peripapillary circular OCT scan centered on the optic disc using both the conventional and the EDI OCT protocols. The visualization of RNFL and choroidoscleral junction was assessed using an ordinal scoring scale. The paired t-test, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), 95% limits of agreement (LoA), and Bland and Altman plots were used to test the agreement of measurements. RESULTS: The visibility score of RNFL obtained with and without EDI was of no significant difference (P=0.532), the visualization of choroidoscleral junction was better using EDI protocol than conventional protocol (P<0.001). Peripapillary RNFL thickness obtained with EDI was slightly thicker than that obtained without EDI (103.25±9.42 μm vs 101.87±8.78 μm, P=0.010). The ICC of the two protocols was excellent with the value of 0.867 to 0.924, the 95% LoA of global RNFL thickness was between -10.0 to 7.4 μm. Peripapillary choroidal thickness obtained with EDI was slightly thinner than that obtained without EDI (147.23±51.04 μm vs 150.90±51.84 μm, P<0.001). The ICC was also excellent with the value of 0.960 to 0.987, the 95% LoA of global choroidal thickness was between -12.5 to 19.8 μm. CONCLUSION: Peripapillary circular OCT scan with or without EDI mode shows comparable results in the measurement of peripapillary RNFL and choroidal thickness.
2017, 10(10):1545-1551. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.11
Abstract:AIM: To investigate foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and parafoveal vessel densities (PRVD) by means of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in diabetic patients with or without diabetic retinopathy (DR) and to assess the reproducibility of FAZ and PRVD measurements. METHODS: Sixty diabetic patients (60 eyes) with different stage of DR (graded according to the International Clinical Severity Scale for DR) and 20 healthy subjects underwent FAZ area and PRVD measurements using OCTA by two experienced examiners. FAZ area in all patients was also assessed using fluorescein angiography (FA). RESULTS: In subject with proliferative DR and with moderate-severe non proliferative DR, FAZ area was significantly increased compared to healthy controls (P=0.025 and P=0.050 respectively measured with OCTA and P=0.025 and P=0.048 respectively measured with FA). OCTA showed significantly less inter-observer variability compared to FA. Concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for FAZ area measurements was 0.829 (95%CI: 0.736-0.891) P<0.001 with FA and 1.000 (95%CI: 0.999-1.000) P<0.001 with OCTA. CCC was 0.834 (95%CI: 0.746-0.893) P<0.001 and 0.890 (95%CI: 0.828-0.930) P<0.001 for parafoveal superficial and deep vessel density measurements, respectively. CONCLUSION: OCTA shows progressive increase of FAZ area and reduction of PRVD in both superficial and deep plexus at increasing DR severity. FAZ area and PRVD measurements using OCTA are highly reproducible.
2017, 10(10):1552-1558. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.12
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the role of bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of advanced dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using multifocal electroretinogram (mf-ERG) and fundus autofluorescence imaging. METHODS: Thirty patients (60 eyes) with bilateral central geographic atrophy (GA) were recruited. Worse eye of each patient received autologous bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSCs) (group 1) and the fellow eye with better visual acuity served as control (group 2). The effect of stem cell therapy was determined in terms of visual acuity, amplitude and implicit time in mf-ERG and size of GA on fundus autofluorescence imaging. These tests were performed at presentation and first, third and sixth month follow up. Adverse events (if any) were also monitored. RESULTS: At 6mo follow-up there was no statistically significant improvement in median logMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in either group. Mf-ERG revealed significant improvement in amplitude and implicit time in the intervention group. A significant decrease was also noted in greatest linear dimension (GLD) of GA in the eyes receiving stem cells [6.78±2.60 mm at baseline to 6.56±2.59 mm at 6mo (P=0.021)]. However, no such improvement was noted in the control group. CONCLUSION: Electrophysiological and anatomical improvement in the intervention group sheds light on the therapeutic role of BM-HSCs. Further studies are required to determine the stage of disease at which the maximal benefit can be achieved and to standardize the dose and frequency of stem cell injection.
2017, 10(10):1559-1565. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.13
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the refractive correction for standard automated perimetry (SAP) in eyes with refractive multifocal contact lenses (CL) in healthy young participants. METHODS: Twenty-nine eyes of 29 participants were included. Accommodation was paralyzed in all participants with 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride. SAP was performed using the Humphrey SITA-standard 24-2 and 10-2 protocol under three refractive conditions: monofocal CL corrected for near distance (baseline); multifocal CL corrected for distance (mCL-D); and mCL-D corrected for near vision using a spectacle lens (mCL-N). Primary outcome measures were the foveal threshold, mean deviation (MD), and pattern standard deviation (PSD). RESULTS: The foveal threshold of mCL-N with both the 24-2 and 10-2 protocols significantly decreased by 2.2-2.5 dB CONCLUSION: Despite the induced mydriasis and the optical design of the multifocal lens used in this study, our results indicated that, when the dome-shaped visual field test is performed with eyes with large pupils and wearing refractive multifocal CLs, distance correction without additional near correction is to be recommended.
2017, 10(10):1566-1572. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.14
Abstract:AIM: To compare the speed of visual recovery following myopic thin-flap LASIK with four femtosecond lasers. METHODS: Eighty-eight eyes of 46 patients who were consecutively scheduled for bilateral LASIK with the IntraLase FS60 (Group 1), Femto LDV Crystal Line (Group 2), Wavelight FS200 (Group 3) and VisuMax (Group 4) femtosecond lasers were enrolled in. Monocular uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), best-corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA), refraction, contrast sensitivity and higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were evaluated at 1, 3d, 1wk and 1mo postoperatively. RESULTS: Sixteen eyes (72.7%) achieved 20/16 and 8 eyes (36.4%) were 20/12.5 at 1d in Group 2, which was significantly more than other 3 groups. At 1wk, 20 eyes (90.9%) achieved 20/16 in Groups 2 and 4. At 1mo, 20 eyes (90.9%) achieved 20/16 in Group 2 and Group 4, which were significantly more than other two groups. While by 1 mo, the difference of the residual spherical equivalent (SE) was not statistically significant among 4 groups (P=0.121). The induction of spherical aberration (SA) were significantly less for Groups 2, 3, 4 than for Group 1 one day after surgery (P=0.015). The differences among 4 groups were not statistically significant before and after surgery on every time points (all P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The thin-flap LASIK procedure using the Femto LDV Crystal Line and VisuMax femtosecond laser show faster visual performance recovery.
2017, 10(10):1573-1579. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.15
Abstract:AIM: To conduct a Meta-analysis for investigating the variations in intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) during normal pregnancy. METHODS: We searched for clinical trials published up to November 2015 without language or region restrictions in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid, EBSCO, Elsevier, the Chinese Biomedicine Database, WanFang, CNKI, CQVIP and Google Scholar. Studies of the ocular changes observed in pregnant women were selected. The main outcomes were assessed by changes in IOP and CCT. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included. In subgroup analyses, IOP was significantly decreased during the second MD=-1.53, 95%CI (-2.19, -0.87); P<0.00001, and third MD=-2.91, 95%CI (-3.74, -2.08); P<0.00001 trimesters of pregnancy. CCT was increased during the second MD=10.12, 95%CI (2.01, 18.22); P=0.01, trimester of pregnancy; moreover, during the third trimester of pregnancy, the CCT displayed an increasing trend, but the difference was not significant MD=5.98, 95%CI (-1.11, 13.07); P=0.1. CONCLUSION: A decrease in IOP is accompanied by an increase in CCT in the second and third trimesters of a normal pregnancy in women.
2017, 10(10):1580-1585. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.16
Abstract:AIM: To obtain information on the prevailing practice patterns of glaucoma specialists in India. METHODS: Glaucoma specialists attending the Annual Conference of the Glaucoma Society of India (GSI) were surveyed. This survey, conducted in 2013, was based on an interactive audience response system. RESULTS: The information was obtained from 146 glaucoma specialists. Approximately half (n=83; 57%) had ≥10y of experience in managing glaucoma and were in institutional practice (n=74, 51%). Goldmann applanation tonometry was preferred by 103 (72%) specialists whilst n=25 (17.4%) used non-contact tonometer. Indentation gonioscopy was favoured by two-thirds (n=90, 66%) whereas stereoscopic optic disc examination and visual fields using Humphrey perimeter was performed by a majority of the specialists surveyed (n=115, 86% and n=114; 83% respectively). Nearly three quarter specialists (n=96; 72%) preferred optical coherence tomography for imaging. The primary choice for treatment of angle closure disease and primary open angle glaucoma was laser (iridotomy, n=117; 93%) and medical management (prostaglandin analogue, n=104; 78%), respectively. Approximately only a third of the specialists surveyed (n=37; 28%) were performing both trabeculectomy and implantation of a glaucoma drainage device and about half (n=64; 47%) were not operating on congenital glaucoma at all. CONCLUSION: This survey has found conformance with preferred practice patterns in several areas of diagnosis and management of glaucoma, but there was diversity in a few areas. The information is a significant step towards improvement of glaucoma care in India, including planning for future strategies.
2017, 10(10):1586-1591. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.17
Abstract:AIM: To identify the 100 most cited papers in cataract surgery, we performed a comprehensive bibliometric analysis basing on the literature search on the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge. METHODS: The number of citations, including the total citations, latest 5y citations and average citation number per year (ACY), authorship, year of publication, major topics, journal of publication, country and institution of origin of each paper were recorded and then analyzed. Pearson’s correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between the published year and the number of citations. The correlation between journal’s impact factor (IF) and number of citations was assessed as well. RESULTS: The most cited paper was the classic paper done by the European Society of Cataract & Refractive Surgeons (ESCRS) group. This paper focused on the topic of endophthalmitis. Not only the most cited papers originated from the USA, but also some American institutions like Johns Hopkins University, Harvard Medical School, etc. had the most citations. Pearson’s correlation analysis indicated that the latest 5y citations and ACY were significantly related with the published year (5y citations: r=0.615, P<0.001; ACY: r=0.657, P<0.001), whereas no association between the total number of citations and published year was found (r=0.045). Moreover, the IFs of journals were found to have no significant effect on the number of total citations. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study on the most influential papers in cataract surgery after a comprehensive research of relevant literatures. The present work may provide us concise information concerning the development history of cataract surgery over the past 66y.
2017, 10(10):1592-1603. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.18
Abstract:Paediatric retinal detachment (PRD) is an uncommon and challenging disease; it differs from adult detachments in etiology, anatomical characteristics, management and prognosis. PRDs can be particularly challenging, even for the most expert paediatric surgeons due to the higher prevalence of total retinal detachments, late diagnosis and bilateral involvement with respect to those which occur in adulthood. Moreover, the anatomical success, when achieved, is frequently not related to a functional recover. Postsurgical adverse events, refractive errors and amblyopia may additionally undermine the final outcome. Up to date there are few reviews regarding the approach of retinal detachment in children, mainly dealing with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. In this review, rhegmatogenous, retinopathy of prematurity-related and Coats’-related PRDs were considered. The available literature from the last decades were reviewed and summarized. Epidemiology, etiology and clinical presentation, together with therapeutic approaches and outcomes have been reviewed and discussed.
2017, 10(10):1604-1610. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.19
Abstract:The aim of this manuscript is to review the action and adverse effects of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) on ocular tissues. The percentage of unwanted pregnancies and the subsequent abortions make contraception crucial worldwide. Over 100 million women around the world use common contraceptive methods, including intrauterine devices, combined estrogen and progestin oral contraceptives, as well as progestin only preparations (oral contraceptives, implants or injections). COCs are widely used for contraception, but they are also indicated in menorrhagia, endometriosis, acne and hirsutism, fibroid uterus and premenstrual syndrome. However, they have been associated with high rates of cardiovascular events, venous thromboembolic disease, ischemic strokes and breast cancer. The incidence of COCs-related ocular complications is estimated to be 1 in 230 000, including dry eye symptoms, corneal edema, lens opacities and retinal neuro-ophthalmologic or vascular complications. We may infer that the serious ocular complications of COCs can be prevented by eliminating the estrogen dosage and choosing third-generation progestins. In any case, doctors should take into consideration the systemic and ocular history of the patients before selecting any method of contraception.
2017, 10(10):1611-1613. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.20
Abstract:Corneal diseases are currently the second main cause of blindness in China. Although most of the corneal blindness could be treated by corneal transplantation, only about 10 000 operations were carried out each year owing to the severe shortage of corneal donors and limited eye bank programs. A feasible cornea donation program was established through the organization of the Red Cross, and in situ corneal removal techniques were developed to avoid conflicts with Chinese traditions of keeping the deceased intact. The number of donated corneas, which had a safe and secure quality, increased significantly year by year.
2017, 10(10):1614-1616. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.10.21
Abstract:The changes in the iridocorneal angle structure during accommodation are assessed by means of anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Thirteen right eyes were included in the study. The device used for the measurement was the Visante® omni system. The stimuli were set up at different vergences (0.0 D, -1.5 D, and -3.0 D). The angle opening distance 500 and 750, the trabecular iris space area 500 and 750, and the scleral spur angle parameters were assessed at the nasal and temporal regions. The results in the iridotrabecular angle comparing the three accommodative states of the eye did not yield any statistically significant difference at nasal or temporal angle sections. In light of our results and in the conditions of our study, the structures of the iridocorneal angle are not significantly changed with accommodation.
Editors-in-Chief: Yan-Nian Hui and Peter Wiedemann
Established in April, 2008
ISSN 2222-3959 print
ISSN 2227-4898 online