• Volume 10,Issue 9,2017 Table of Contents
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    • >Basic Research
    • Suppression of fibrosis in human pterygium fibroblasts by butyrate and phenylbutyrate

      2017, 10(9):1337-1343. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.01

      Abstract (1545) HTML (122) PDF 961.22 K (451) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the antifibrogenic effects of butyrate or phenylbutyrate, a chemical derivative of butyrate, in human pterygium fibroblasts. METHODS: Human pterygium fibroblasts obtained from patient pterygium tissue were treated with butyrate or phenylbutyrate for 48h. Expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, collagen III and matrix metalloproteinase-1 mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and acetylated histone was evaluated by Western blotting. RESULTS: Butyrate inhibited α-smooth muscle actin, type III collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-1 expressions, and phenylbutyrate inhibited types I and III collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-1 expressions without changing cell viability as well as both of these increased histone acetylation. These results suggested that butyrate and phenylbutyrate suppress fibrosis through a mechanism involving histone deacetylase inhibitor. CONCLUSION: This indicates that butyrate or phenylbutyrate have antifibrogenic effects in human pterygium fibroblasts and could be novel types of prophylactic and/or therapeutic drugs for pterygium, especially phenylbutyrate, which does not have the unpleasant smell associated with butyrate.

    • Analysis of proteomic differences between liquefied after-cataracts and normal lenses using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

      2017, 10(9):1344-1348. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.02

      Abstract (1334) HTML (70) PDF 850.95 K (447) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To analyze and identify the proteomic differences between liquefied after-cataracts and normal lenses by means of liquefied chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). METHODS: Three normal lenses and three liquefied after-cataracts were exposed to depolymerizing reagents to extract the total proteins. Protein concentrations were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The digitized images obtained with a GS-800 scanner were then analyzed with PDQuest7.0 software to detect the differentially-expressed protein spots. These protein spots were cut from the gel using a proteome work spot cutter and subjected to in-gel digestion with trypsin. The digested peptide separation was conducted by LC-MS/MS. RESULTS: The 2-DE maps showed that lens proteins were in a pH range of 3-10 with a relative molecular weight of 21-70 kD. The relative molecular weight of the more abundant proteins was localized at 25-50 kD, and the isoelectric points were found to lie between PI 4-9. The maps also showed that the protein level within the liquefied after-cataracts was at 29 points and significantly lower than in normal lenses. The 29 points were identified by LC-MS/MS, and ten of these proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and database queries: beta-crystallin B1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, carbonyl reductase (NADPH) 1, cDNA FLJ55253, gamma-crystallin D, GAS2-like protein 3, sorbitol dehydrogenase, DNA FLJ60282, phosphoglycerate kinase, and filensin. CONCLUSION: The level of the ten proteins may play an important role in the development of liquefied after-cataracts.

    • MMP-2 Rs24386 (C-->T) gene polymorphism and the phenotype of age-related macular degeneration

      2017, 10(9):1349-1353. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.03

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      Abstract:AIM: To examine the MMP-2 (-1306 C/T) gene polymorphism and the phenotype characterized by soft and hard drusen of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and geographic atrophy of late AMD form. METHODS: The study enrolled 850 investigations (290 AMD patients with soft and hard drusen, 34 with geographic atrophy and a random sample of the population n=526). Early AMD was classified according to the International Classification and Grading System. For geographic atrophy diagnosis the Age-Related Eye Disease Study classification was used. The potential association with single nucleotide polymorphisms on MMP-2 Rs243865 was evaluated for all patients, adjusted for age and sex. The genotyping test of MMP-2 Rs243865 (C-->T) was conducted using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. RESULTS: MMP-2 (-1306 C/T) C/C genotype was more frequently detected in AMD patients with hard drusen than the soft drusen or control group (66.43% vs 53.74%, vs 54.94%, P=0.047). Logistic regression analysis showed that the MMP-2 (-1306) C/C genotype increased the likelihood to develop hard drusen in AMD patients (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.06-2.74; P=0.028). No association between MMP-2 (-1306 C/T) gene polymorphism in patients with atrophic AMD and control group was found (54.94%, 37.64%, 7.41% vs 50%, 38.24%, 11.76%; P=0.6). CONCLUSION: The MMP-2 Rs24386 (C-->T) polymorphism is found to be associated with the development of hard drusen in patients with AMD.

    • Intraocular pressure control of a novel glaucoma drainage device - in vitro and in vivo studies

      2017, 10(9):1354-1360. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.04

      Abstract (1689) HTML (93) PDF 1.45 M (608) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) control of an artificial trabeculum drainage system (ATDS), a newly designed glaucoma drainage device, and postoperative complications in normal rabbit eyes. METHODS: Pressure drops in air and fluid of 30 ATDS were measured after being connected to a closed manometric system. Twenty of them were then chosen and implanted randomly into the eyes of 20 rabbits. Postoperative slit-lamp, gonioscopic examination and IOP measurements were recorded periodically. Ultrasound biomicroscopy and B-scan ultrasonography were also used to observe the complications. Eyes were enucleated on day 60. RESULTS: Pressure drops of 4.6-9.4 mm Hg were obtained at physiological aqueous flow rates in the tests in vitro. The average postoperative IOP of the experimental eyes (11.6-12.8 mm Hg) was lower than the controls significantly (P<0.05) at each time point. Complications of hemorrhage (n=1), cellulosic exudation (two cases) and local iris congestion (two cases) were observed. The lumina of the devices were devoid of obstructions in all specimens examined and a thin fibrous capsule was found around the endplate. CONCLUSION: ATDS reduce IOP effectively. However, further studies on the structure are needed to reduce complications.

    • The ocular toxicity and pharmacokinetics of simvastatin following intravitreal injection in mice

      2017, 10(9):1361-1369. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.05

      Abstract (1633) HTML (92) PDF 3.34 M (450) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the retinal toxicity and pharmacokinetics of simvastatin intravitreally injected into mice. METHODS: Forty-eight 6-8-week-old C57BL/6J mice were used in this study. Simvastatin was intravitreally injected into the right eye of each mouse; the left eye was injected with vehicle and was used as a control. Bilateral dark-adapted electroretinography (ERG) was performed 1 and 7d following injection. Histology was examined using a combination of light, fluorescence and electron microscopy. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the decay in the retinal simvastatin concentration. RESULTS: ERG revealed no significant changes in the simvastatin-injected eyes compared to control. Histologic studies showed normal retinal morphology in eyes injected with simvastatin up to a final vitreal concentration of 200 μmol/L. No significant changes in the number of photoreceptors, bipolar cells or ganglion cells were found. The retinal simvastatin concentration decayed exponentially, with a half-life of 1.92-2.41h. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal injection of up to 200 μmol/L simvastatin produced no signs of adverse effects in the mouse retina. Simvastatin reaches the retina shortly after intravitreal injectionand has a short half-life.

    • Effect of dopamine on bone morphogenesis protein-2 expression in human retinal pigment epithelium

      2017, 10(9):1370-1373. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.06

      Abstract (1336) HTML (78) PDF 848.33 K (558) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the effect of dopamine on bone morphogenesis protein-2 (BMP-2) expression in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in vitro. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells as a human RPE cell line were cultured with dopamine for different times (2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 24h) or with different concentrations (0.1, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 100 μg/mL) in vitro. BMP-2 mRNA expression level in ARPE-19 cells was analyzed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and BMP-2 protein level was measured with Western blot analysis. The active form of BMP-2 in the culture medium was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The expression level of BMP-2 increased significantly cultured with 20 μg/mL dopamine, at different time points (P<0.05). BMP-2 mRNA level peaked 2h and the protein level peaked at 6 and 8h after treatment. The concentrations of secreted BMP-2 elevated at 12h and peaked at 24h (P<0.05) in a time-dependent manner. Treated with 100 μg/mL dopamine for 6h, the expression levels of BMP-2 mRNA and protein in ARPE-19 cells were enhanced significantly compared to that in the untreated cells (P<0.05). And secreted BMP-2 protein in the cell culture supernatant was also increased (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Dopamine up-regulate BMP-2 expression in RPE cells, and this may be associated with its inhibitive effect on myopia development.

    • >Clinical Research
    • Effect of phacoemulsification on intraocular pressure in patients with primary open angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma

      2017, 10(9):1374-1378. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.07

      Abstract (2920) HTML (122) PDF 330.80 K (454) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To compare the effect of phacoemulsification on intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG). METHODS: A retrospective comparative case series conducted at the Glaucoma Department at the Association to Prevent Blindness in Mexico. The study enrolled consecutive patients having phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and a diagnosis of POAG or PXG. Data about IOP values and number of glaucoma medications used was collected at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 12mo postoperatively. RESULTS: The study enrolled 88 patients (88 eyes). After phacoemulsification, there was a statistically significant reduction in IOP values and glaucoma medications use compared to baseline in both POAG and PXG patients (P<0.001). In the POAG group, a 20% decrease in IOP values was evidenced, and a 56.5% reduction in the number of medications used at the one-year follow-up. The PXG group showed a 20.39%, and a 34.46% decrease in IOP and number of medications used, respectively. A significant difference in the mean ΔIOP (postoperative changes in IOP) was evidenced between groups (P=0.005). The reduction of the postsurgical IOP mean values in both groups, the POAG group showed a greater reduction in IOP values compared to the PXG group. CONCLUSION: In both types of glaucoma, phacoemulsification cataract surgery can result in a significant IOP reduction (20%) over a 12mo follow-up period. The number of medications used is also significantly reduced up to 12mo after surgery, especially in the PXG group.

    • Long-term efficacy and safety of ExPress implantation for treatment of open angle glaucoma

      2017, 10(9):1379-1384. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.08

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      Abstract:AIM: To compare the long-term efficacy and safety of ExPress implantation and standard trabeculectomy in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: In this retrospective study, we compared 17 eyes treated by ExPress implantation with 23 eyes treated by trabeculectomy. Efficacy was assessed according to the relevant intraocular pressure (IOP) values and success rates during the first year of follow-up. Postoperative corneal endothelial cell loss was also compared. RESULTS: The number of antiglaucoma medications and the IOP reduction were similar between the 2 groups during the follow-up period. Although the mean IOP was similar, the IOP-fluctuation rate during the early postoperative period was significantly lower in the ExPress group than in the trabeculectomy group (P=0.038). A Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed no significant success-rate difference between the groups (P=0.810). The corneal endothelial cell loss rate, moreover, was significantly lower in the ExPress group (P=0.05). CONCLUSION: ExPress implantation compared with trabeculectomy showed similar IOP-reduction and success rates along with lower IOP fluctuation and endothelial cell loss rates. For this reason, it can be considered to be the treatment of choice for patients with advanced glaucoma or low corneal endothelial cell density.

    • Influence of corneal power on circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head measurements by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

      2017, 10(9):1385-1391. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.09

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the influence of corneal power on circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) and optic nerve head (ONH) measurements by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: Twenty-five eyes of 25 healthy participants (mean age 23.6±3.6y) were imaged by SD-OCT using horizontal raster scans. Disposable soft contact lenses of different powers (from ?11 to +5 diopters including 0 diopter) were worn to induce 2-diopter changes in corneal power. Differences in the cpRNFL and ONH measurements per diopter of change in corneal power were analyzed. RESULTS: As corneal power increased by 1 diopter, total and quadrant cpRNFL thicknesses, except for the nasal sector, decreased by ?0.19 to ?0.32 μm (P<0.01). Furthermore, the disc, cup, and rim areas decreased by ?0.017, ?0.007, and ?0.015 mm2, respectively (P<0.001); the cup and rim volumes decreased by ?0.0013 and ?0.006 mm3, respectively (P<0.01); and the vertical and horizontal disc diameters decreased by ?0.006 and ?0.007 mm, respectively (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: For more precise OCT imaging, the ocular magnification should be corrected by considering both the axial length and corneal power. However, the effect of corneal power changes on cpRNFL thickness and ONH topography are small when compare with those of the axial length.

    • Long-term outcome of highly myopic foveoschisis treated by vitrectomy with or without gas tamponade

      2017, 10(9):1392-1395. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.10

      Abstract (1596) HTML (134) PDF 707.06 K (379) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling with or without gas tamponade for highly myopic foveoschisis. METHODS: We performed an open-label, observer-blinded clinical trial of 85 patients with myopic foveoschisis between 2000 and 2012. Patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups, those who received vitrectomy and ILM peeling without gas tamponade (no-gas group) or those who with gas tamponade (gas group) and follow up at least 5y. RESULTS: Visual acuity of gas group improved from 0.82±0.33 to 0.79±0.73 in 6mo, improved to 0.71±0.67 in 1y and within this range in the following 4y. Visual acuity of no-gas group improved from 0.81±0.46 to 0.78±0.66 in 6mo, improved to 0.70±0.65 in 1y. The finial visual acuity of two groups were significantly increased compared with the baseline (P<0.05). The visual acuity was improved in 35 of 40 eyes (87.5%) in gas group and 29 of 33 eyes (87.9%) in no-gas group, while there were no significant differences between gas group and no-gas group in the visual acuity. The foveoschisis on optical coherence tomography (OCT) completely resolved in 5 of 40 eyes in 1mo, 14 eyes in 6mo and 40 eyes in 1y in the gas group. While the foveoschisis completely resolved in 4 of 33 eyes in 1mo, 10 eyes in 6mo and 33 eyes in 1y in the no-gas group. CONCLUSION: Vitrectomy and ILM peeling without gas tamponade appears to be as effective in the treatment of myopic foveoschisis as vitrectomy and ILM with gas tamponade. However, eyes treated with no-gas tamponade showed more rapid resolution of myopic foveoschisis.

    • Comparative analysis of cytomegalovirus retinitis and microvascular retinopathy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

      2017, 10(9):1396-1401. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.11

      Abstract (1531) HTML (55) PDF 812.14 K (422) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To compare the clinical manifestation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and microvascular retinopathy (MVR) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in China. METHODS: A total of 93 consecutive patients with AIDS, including 41 cases of CMV retinitis and 52 cases of MVR were retrospectively reviewed. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) status was recorded. HIV and CMV immunoassay were also tested. CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and blood CMV-DNA test were performed in all patients. Aqueous humor CMV-DNA test was completed in 39 patients. Ophthalmological examinations including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, by International Standard Vision Chart), intraocular pressure (IOP), slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy were performed. RESULTS: In MVR group, the anterior segment examination was normal in all patients with a mean BCVA of 0.93±0.13. Blood CMV-DNA was 0 (0, 269 000) and 42 patients (80.77%) did not receive HAART. In CMV retinitis group, 13 patients (31.71%) had anterior segment abnormality. The mean BCVA was 0.64±0.35 and blood CMV-DNA was 3470 (0, 1 450 000). Nineteen patients (46.34%) had not received HAART. MVR group and CMV retinitis group the positive rates of aqueous CMV-DNA were 0 and 50%, respectively. Two patients with MVR progressed to CMV retinitis during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: In comparison of CMV, patients with MVR have relatively mild visual function impairment. Careful ophthalmological examination and close follow-up are mandatory, especially for patients who have systemic complications, positive CMV-DNA test and without received HAART.

    • Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

      2017, 10(9):1402-1406. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.12

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      Abstract:AIM: To compare the optic disc blood flow of non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) eyes with normal eyes. METHODS: The optic disc blood flow densities of diagnosed non-acute phase NAION eyes (21 eyes, 14 individuals) and normal eyes (19 eyes, 12 individuals) were detected via Optovue optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). The optic disc blood flow was measured via Image J software. Correlations between optic disc perfusion and visual function variables were assessed by linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The average percentage of the optic disc non-perfusion areas in the non-acute phase NAION patients (17.84%±6.18%) was increased, when compared to the normal control eyes (8.61%±1.65%), and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). Moreover, there was a proportional correlation between the visual field mean defect (MD) and the optic disc non-perfusion area percentage, and the relationship was statistically significant (t=3.65, P<0.01, R2=0.4118). In addition, the critical correlation between the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the optic disc non-perfusion area percentage was statistically significant (t=4.32, P<0.01, R2=0.4957). CONCLUSION: The optic disc non-perfusion area percentages detected via OCTA in NAION eyes were significantly increased when compared with the normal eyes. Both the BCVA and MD were correlated with the optic disc flow detected, revealing that OCTA may be valuable in the diagnosis and estimation of NAION.

    • Effects of higher-order aberrations on contrast sensitivity in normal eyes of a large myopic population

      2017, 10(9):1407-1411. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.13

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      Abstract:AIM: To study the relation between higher-order aberrations (HOAs) and contrast sensitivity (CS) in normal eyes among a population of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) candidates. METHODS: In 6629 eyes of 3315 LASIK candidates, CS were measured under dark environment at the spatial frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 18 cycles per degree (c/d), respectively, using an Optec 6500 visual function tester. Meanwhile, ocular HOAs were measured for a 6.0 mm pupil with a Hartmann-Shack wavefront analyzer. RESULTS: In the study, the subjects with an average spherical equivalent of -4.86±2.07 D were included. HOAs decreased from the third to the sixth order aberrations with predominant aberrations of third-order coma, trefoil and fourth-order spherical aberration. At low and moderate spatial frequencies, CS was negatively correlated with the third-order coma and trefoil aberrations, and decreased with increasing Z31, but increased with increasing Z3-3 and Z5-1. At high spatial frequencies, CS decreased with increasing Z3-3 and increased with increasing Z5-1. CONCLUSION: At a large pupil size of 6.0 mm, the third-order aberrations, but not the total aberrations, are the main factors affecting CS. Vertical coma is negatively correlated with CS.

    • Validity of autorefractor based screening method for irregular astigmatism compared to the corneal topography- a cross sectional study

      2017, 10(9):1412-1418. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.14

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      Abstract:AIM: To present a method of screening for irregular astigmatism with an autorefractor and its determinants compared to corneal topography. METHODS: This cross-sectional validity study was conducted in 2013 at an eye hospital in Spain. A tabletop autorefractor (test 1) was used to measure the refractive status of the anterior surface of the cornea at two corneal meridians of each eye. Then corneal topography (test 2) and Bogan’s classification was used to group eyes into those with regular or no astigmatism (GRI) and irregular astigmatism (GRII). Test 1 provided a single absolute value for the greatest cylinder difference (Vr). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were plotted for the Vr values measured by test 1 for GRI and GRII eyes. On the basis a Vr value of 1.25 D as cut off, sensitivity, specificity were also calculated. RESULTS: The study sample was comprised of 260 eyes (135 patients). The prevalence of irregular astigmatism was 42% [95% confidence interval (CI): 36, 48]. Based on test 2, there were 151 eyes in GRI and 109 eyes in GRII. The median Vr was 0.75 D (25% quartile, 0.5 D) for GRI and 1.75 D (25% quartile, 1.25 D) for GRII. The area under curve was 0.171 for GRI and 0.83 for GRII. The sensitivity of test I was 78.1% and the specificity was 76.1%. CONCLUSION: A conventional autorefractor can be effective as a first level screening method to detect irregular corneal astigmatism in places where corneal topography facilities are not available.

    • >Meta-Analysis
    • Systematic review and Meta-analysis comparing modified cross-linking and standard cross-linking for progressive keratoconus

      2017, 10(9):1419-1429. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.15

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      Abstract:AIM: To compare the effectiveness and safety between modified cross-linking (MC) and standard cross-linking (SC) in mild or moderate progressive keratoconus. METHODS: Eligible studies were retrieved from four electronic databases, including CENTRAL, Clinical Trials gov, PupMed and OVID MEDLINE. We set post-surgical maximum K value (Kmax) as the primary outcome. In addition, uncorrected and corrected distant visual acuity (UDVA and UDVA), spherical equivalent (SE), endothelial cell density (ECD), central cornea thickness (CCT) and depth of demarcation line (DDL) were Meta-analyzed as secondary outcomes. Mean differences for these outcomes were pooled through either a random-effect model or fixed-effect model according to data heterogeneity. RESULTS: Twenty-four comparative studies either on accelerated cross-linking (AC) compared with SC or on trans-epithelial cross-linking (TC) compared with SC were included and pooled for analysis. The results indicated that MC was significantly inferior to SC at delaying Kmax deterioration [AC vs SC 0.49 (95% CI: 0.04-0.94, I2=75%, P=0.03); TC vs SC 1.15 (95% CI: 0.54-1.75, I2=50%, P=0.0002)]. SE decreased significantly for SC when compared to AC [0.62 (95% CI: 0.38-0.86, I2=22%, P<0.00001)]. DDL of SC was more significantly deeper than that of TC [-133.49 (95% CI: -145.94 to -121.04, I2=33%, P<0.00001)]. Other outcomes demonstrated comparable results between MC and SC. CONCLUSION: SC is more favorable at halting the progression of keratoconus, but visual acuity improvement showed comparable results between MCs and SC.

    • Diabetes and risk of glaucoma: systematic review and a Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

      2017, 10(9):1430-1435. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.16

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      Abstract:AIM: To quantify the association between diabetes and glaucoma using Meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched using medical subject headings and key words related to diabetes and glaucoma. The inclusion criteria were: 1) the study design was a prospective cohort study; 2) the exposure of interest was diabetes; 3) the outcome of interest was primary open angle glaucoma (POAG); 4) risk ratios (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Data were pooled using fixed effects models to take into account heterogeneity between studies. Seven prospective studies were selected. Diabetes increased the incidence of glaucoma by 36% (OR=1.36, 95% CI=1.25-1.50). There was no evidence of statistical heterogeneity (I2=0, P=0.53) or publication bias (the funnel plot did not identify obvious asymmetry). RESULTS: Seven prospective cohort studies were incorporated in this Meta-analysis. The pooled RR of the association between POAG and diabetes based on the risk estimates of the seven cohort studies was 1.36 (95%CI=1.24-1.50), with no significant heterogeneity across studies (I2=0; P=0.526). The sensitivity analysis yielded a range of RRs from 1.34 (95%CI=1.22-1.48) to1.40 (95%CI=1.18-1.67). CONCLUSION: Diabetes is associated with a significantly increased risk of glaucoma.

    • Clinical outcomes of small incision lenticule extraction versus femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK for myopia: a Meta-analysis

      2017, 10(9):1436-1445. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.17

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the possible differences in visual quality between small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) for myopia. METHODS: A Meta-analysis was performed. Patients were from previously reported comparative studies treated with SMILE versus FS-LASIK. The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science and Chinese databases (i.e. WANFANG and CNKI) were searched in Nov. of 2016 using RevMan 5.1 version software. The differences in visual acuity, aberration and biomechanical effects within six months postoperatively were showed. Twenty-seven studies including 4223 eyes were included. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between SMILE and FS-LASIK in terms of the proportion of eyes that lost one or more lines of corrected distance visual acuity after surgery (P=0.14), the proportion of eyes achieving an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better (P=0.43), the final refractive spherical equivalent (P=0.89), the refractive spherical equivalent within ±1.00 diopter of the target values (P=0.80), vertical coma (P=0.45) and horizontal coma (P=0.06). Compared with the FS-LASIK group, total higher-order aberration (P<0.001) and spherical aberration (P<0.001) were higher and the decrease in corneal hysteresis (P=0.0005) and corneal resistance factor (P=0.02) were lower in the SMILE group. CONCLUSION: SMILE and FS-LASIK are comparable in efficacy, safety and predictability for correcting myopia. However, the aberration in the SMILE group is superior to that in the FS-LASIK group, and the loss of biomechanical effects may occur less frequently after SMILE than after FS-LASIK.

    • >Investigation
    • Comparison of FDA safety and efficacy data for KAMRA and Raindrop corneal inlays

      2017, 10(9):1446-1451. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.18

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      Abstract:AIM: To provide a side-by-side analysis of the summary of safety and effectiveness data (SSED) submitted to the FDA for the KAMRA and Raindrop corneal inlays for the correction of presbyopia. METHODS: SSED reports submitted to the FDA for KAMRA and Raindrop were compared with respect to loss of corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), adverse event rates, induction of astigmatism, retention of contrast sensitivity, stability of manifest refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE), and achieved monocular uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) at 24mo. RESULTS: Totally 442/508 of KAMRA patients and 344/373 Raindrop patients remained enrolled in the clinical trials at 24mo. The proportion of KAMRA and Raindrop patients who lost ≥2 lines of CDVA at 24mo was 3.4% and 1%, respectively. The adverse event rate was comparable between the devices. No significant inductions of astigmatism were noted. Both technologies induced a transient myopic shift in MRSE followed by a hyperopic shift and subsequent stabilization. Totally 87% of KAMRA and 98% of Raindrop patients attained a monocular UNVA of J5 (20/40) or better at 24mo, 28% of KAMRA and 67% of Raindrop patients attained a monocular UNVA of J1 (20/20) or better at 24mo. CONCLUSION: Both devices can be considered safe and effective, however, the results of corneal inlay implantation are mixed, and long-term patient satisfaction will likely depend on subjective expectations about the capabilities of the inlays. Variability in surgical technique and postoperative care within and between the two clinical trials diminishes the comparative power of this article.

    • Predictive factors of visual outcome of Malaysian cataract patients: a retrospective study

      2017, 10(9):1452-1459. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.19

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      Abstract:AIM: To explore the associations between various characteristics of Malaysian cataract patients and their management, and their post-operative visual outcomes, to inform relevant bodies to reduce cataract-related blindness. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive secondary data analysis of cataract surgery patients in Melaka Hospital, from 2007 to 2014 using the National Eye Database (NED). Patient-related factors (demographic features, systemic and ocular comorbidities) and management-related factors (surgical duration, type of surgery, type of lens) were analysed for their association with visual outcome (acuity). RESULTS: Most patients were Malays (48.23%) and Chinese (38.55%) aged 60-79y (range 0-100y). Hypertension (58.61%) and diabetes (44.89%) were major systemic comorbidities. Glaucoma (6.71%) and diabetic retinopathy (10.12%) were the main ocular comorbidities. Other comorbidities were age-related macular degeneration, pterygium, corneal opacities, macula diseases, vitreous haemorrhage, retinal detachment and pseudoexfoliation (0.70%-1.60%). Preoperatively 7150 (55.03%) eyes presented with poor vision. Uncomplicated phacoemulsification performed quickly with foldable lenses gave good results. CONCLUSION: Primary care physicians should initiate early detection to prevent late presentation of cataracts causing poor vision and should discuss the risks and benefits of cataract surgery while emphasizing the role of pre-existing comorbidities which may affect the visual outcomes. For good results, phacoemulsification should be done within 30min, without complications, using foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens.

    • Visual efficiency among teenaged athletes and non-athletes

      2017, 10(9):1460-1464. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.20

      Abstract (1749) HTML (63) PDF 287.94 K (401) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To compare visual efficiency, specifically accom-modation, vergence, and oculomotor functions among athletes and non-athletes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on sports vision screening was used to evaluate the visual skills of 214 elementary students (107 athletes, 107 non-athletes), aged between 13 and 16y. The visual screening assessed visual parameters such as ocular motor alignment, accommodation, and vergence functions. RESULTS: Mean visual parameters were compared between age-group matched athletes (mean age 14.82±0.98y) and non-athletes (mean age 15.00±1.04y). The refractive errors of all participants were corrected to maximal attainable best corrected visual acuity of logMAR 0.0. Accommodation function assessment evaluated amplitude of accommodation and accommodation facility. Vergence functions measured the near point of convergence, vergence facility, and distance fusional vergence at break and recovery point. Ocular motor alignment was not statistically significant between both groups. Athletes had a statistically significant amplitude of accommodation for both the right eye (t=2.30, P=0.02) and the left eye (t=1.99, P=0.05). Conversely, non-athletes had better accommodation facility (t=-2.54, P=0.01) and near point of convergence (t=4.39, P<0.001) when compared to athletes. Vergence facility was found to be better among athletes (t=2.47, P=0.01). Nevertheless, non-athletes were significantly better for both distance negative and positive fusional vergence. CONCLUSION: Although the findings are still inconclusive as to whether athletes had superior visual skills as compared to non-athletes, it remains important to identify and elucidate the key visual skills needed by athletes in order for them to achieve higher performance in their sports.

    • >Review
    • The role of elastic fibers in pathogenesis of conjunctivochalasis

      2017, 10(9):1465-1473. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.21

      Abstract (1424) HTML (120) PDF 634.60 K (641) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The PubMed, MEDLINE databases and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched for information regarding the etiology and pathogenesis of conjunctivochalasis (CCh) and the synthesis and degradation of elastic fibers. After analysis of the literature, we found elastic fibers was a complex protein molecule from the structure and composition; the degradation of elastic fibers was one of the histopathological features of the disease; the vast majority of the factors related to the pathogenesis of CCh ultimately pointed to abnormal elastic fibers. By reasonably speculating, we considered that abnormal elastic fibers cause the conjunctival relaxation. In conclusion, we hypothesize that elastic fibers play an important role in the pathogenesis of CCh. Studies on the mechanism of synthesis, degradation of elastic fibers are helpful to clarify the pathogenesis of the disease and to find effective treatment methods.

    • >Brief Report
    • Effect of open ultraviolet germicidal irradiation lamps on functionality of excimer lasers used in cornea surgery

      2017, 10(9):1474-1476. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.22

      Abstract (1305) HTML (79) PDF 472.63 K (378) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:We report on the impact of direct ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) on reflective optics, used in the excimer laser system Allegretto Eye-Q. The aim of our work was to confirm our hypothesis based on long-rate observations of obtained anomalies in post-operative results that are attributed to degradation of reflective optics upon ultraviolet radiation. The presence of direct UVGI coupled with humidity in the operating environment caused merging anomalies and unwanted post-operative correction values. Ultraviolet-A radiation caused a similar effect on the reflective cover of the mirrors.

    • >Letter to the Editor
    • Optic perineuritis simultaneously associated with active pulmonary tuberculosis without intraocular tuberculosis

      2017, 10(9):1477-1478. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.23

      Abstract (1289) HTML (56) PDF 667.05 K (379) Comment (0) Favorites


    • >Comment and Response
    • Comment on “Surgical management of fungal endophthalmitis resulting from fungal keratitis”

      2017, 10(9):1479-1480. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.24

      Abstract (1310) HTML (87) PDF 222.11 K (405) Comment (0) Favorites


    • Comment on “Predictors of short-term outcomes related to central subfield foveal thickness after intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion”

      2017, 10(9):1481-1482. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.09.25

      Abstract (1619) HTML (56) PDF 258.53 K (404) Comment (0) Favorites


Editors-in-Chief: Yan-Nian Hui and Peter Wiedemann

Established in April, 2008

ISSN 2222-3959 print

ISSN 2227-4898 online

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