• Volume 11,Issue 11,2018 Table of Contents
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    • >Basic Research
    • Increased succinate receptor GPR91 involved in the pathogenesis of Mooren’s ulcer

      2018, 11(11):1733-1740. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.01

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      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the expression of succinate receptor GPR91 and its pathogenic roles in Mooren’s ulcer (MU). METHODS: Biopsy specimens were obtained from 7 patients with MU and 6 healthy donors. The expression of GPR91 in MU tissues was evaluated using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Succinate was used to activate GPR91 signaling, and the effect of GPR91 on the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), NLRP3, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was determined. The influence of GPR91 on the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling in PBMCs was investigated by detecting the phosphorylation of p65. Moreover, the expression of IL-1β, VEGF, MMP-13 and phosphorylated p65 (p-p65) in the tissues of MU was examined by qRT-PCR or IHC. RESULTS: GPR91 mRNA expression showed a higher level in the MU group than in the healthy control group. IHC analysis also revealed that the expression of GPR91 was elevated in patients with MU compared with healthy controls. Moreover, ligation of GPR91 with succinate promoted the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of NLRP3, IL-1β, VEGF and MMP-13 in PBMCs through increased phosphorylation of p65. Pharmacological inhibition of the NF-κB signaling reversed GPR91 induced production of NLRP3, IL-1β, VEGF and MMP-13. These findings, coupled with the elevated amounts of IL-1β, VEGF, MMP-13 and p-p65 observed in the MU biopsies, constituted a rational basis for the involvement of GPR91 in the pathogenesis of MU. CONCLUSION: This study indicates the increased succinate receptor GPR91 in conjunctival or corneal tissues is involved in the pathogenesis of MU through elevated NF-κB activity, which may provide a new therapeutic target for MU.

    • Experimental study on the biocompatibility of keratoprosthesis with improved titanium implant

      2018, 11(11):1741-1745. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.02

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      Abstract:AIM: To investigate whether hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating can improve keratoprosthesis (KPro) implant biointegration, ultimately to decrease the risk of implant-associated complications. METHODS: The modified titanium implant was designed and prepared for artificial cornea. The titanium implant was treated with sandblasting and hydroxyapatite coating by acid-base two-step method. Surface was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), KPro implants coated with HAp and KPro implant sandblasted were implanted in rabbits. Tissue adhesion to the implant was assessed and compared to an unmodified implant by histopathology (HE), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SEM. RESULTS: SEM demonstrated successful deposition of HAp on titanium implant sandblasted (HA/SB-Ti). The hydroxyapatite coatings caused enhancement of keratocyte proliferation compared with unmodified implant surfaces. HAp coating significantly increased adhesion forces. HAp coating of implants reduced the inflammatory response around the KPro implants in vivo. CONCLUSION: HAp-coated surfaces for use in titanium KPro implant greatly enhanced adherence of the titanium KPro implant in the rabbit cornea.

    • Exploration of the glutamate-mediated retinal excitotoxic damage: a rat model of retinal neurodegeneration

      2018, 11(11):1746-1754. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.03

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      Abstract:AIM: To explore the more suitable concentration of glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) for intravitreal injection to establish a rat model of retinal neurodegeneration. METHODS: We injected different doses of glutamate (20 or 50 nmol) or NMDA (40 nmol) into the vitreous chambers of rats, then measured the concentration of glutamate and retinal thickness, quantified apoptotic cells and determined the degree of tau hyperphosphorylation at different time points. T-test was used for comparison of two groups. One-way ANOVA and Turkey's multiple comparisons test were used for comparisons of different groups, and P values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The glutamate level in the rats treated with 50 nmol of glutamate was twice that of the control group and persisted two weeks. Seven days after intravitreal injection of 50 nmol of glutamate, three parameters [inner retinal thickness (IRT), retinal thickness (RT) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) cell number] were reduced significantly. Furthermore, numerous TUNEL-positive cells were observed in the GCL one day after intravitreal injection of 50 nmol of glutamate, the expression of the apoptosis-related factor cleaved casepase-3 was markedly increased compared with the expression levels in the other treatment groups, and the expression levels of tau s396 and tau s404 were significantly increased compared with those in the control group. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the intravitreal injection of 50 nmol of glutamate can establish the more effective retinal neurodegeneration animal model relative to other treatment groups.

    • Effect of green flickering light on myopia development and expression of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in guinea pigs

      2018, 11(11):1755-1760. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.04

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      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the effects of green flickering light on refractive development and expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) M1 in the eyes of guinea pigs. METHODS: Thirty guinea pigs (15-20 days old) were randomly divided into three groups (n=10/group). Animals in group I were raised in a completely closed carton with green flickering light illumination. Those in group II were kept in the open top closed carton under normal natural light. Guinea pigs were raised in a sight-widen cage under normal natural light in group III. The refractive status and axial length were measured before and after 8 weeks' illumination. Moreover, total RNA extracted from retinal, choroidal, and scleral tissues were determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expressions of the receptor M1 were also explored in the retina, choroid, and sclera using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: There was a remarkable reduction in refractive error and increase in axial length after 8-weeks' green flickering light stimulation (P<0.001). The expression of M1 receptor mRNA in sclera and retina in myopia group were remarkably lower than that in group II and III (P<0.01). Significant reduced expression of M1 receptor stimulated by green flickering light in retina and sclera tissues were also observed (P<0.05). However, there was no M1 receptor expression in choroid in 3 groups. CONCLUSION: Myopia can be induced by 8 weeks' green flickering light exposure in the animal model. M1 receptor may be involved causally or protectively in myopia development.

    • >Clinical Research
    • Two-stage procedure in the management of selected cases of keratoconus: clear lens extraction with aspherical IOL implantation followed by WFG-PRK

      2018, 11(11):1761-1767. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.05

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      Abstract:AIM: To assess the objective and subjective results of a two-stage procedure for management of keratoconus: clear lensectomy with aspherical intraocular lens (IOL) implantation followed by wave front-guided photorefractive keratotomy (WFG-PRK). METHODS: This prospective interventional non-randomized study included patients aged 35 years old or more with grade I and II stable keratoconus, a clear visual axis, minimal corneal thickness (MCT) 420 μm or more and average keratometric reading (K) less than 54 diopter (D). Refraction of all selected eyes should be -8.00 D sphere or more with less than -6.00 D cylinder and could be corrected two lines or more with spectacles or contact lenses. All studied eyes underwent a two-stage approach treatment: first refractive lens exchange and aspherical IOL implantation followed, after at least 3mo, by WFG-PRK. Pre and postoperative complete ophthalmological examination were performed. Topographical, visual and aberrometric results were recorded and evaluated during 6mo follow up period. Moreover, patient satisfaction and other subjective outcomes were also analyzed. RESULTS: The 13 eyes of 11 patients diagnosed with stable keratoconus and aged from 39 to 49y (42.4±6.2y) were enrolled in the study. At baseline, 8 eyes had grade I and 5 eyes had grade II keratoconus. The manifest sphere was -10.3±4.2 D (ranged from -8.0 to -14.0 D) and the manifest cylinder was -4.2±1.2 D (ranged from -1.75 to -5.50 D). After the two-stage procedure, sphere and cylinder reduced significantly to -0.43±0.22 D and -1.3±0.72 D respectively (P<0.001). There was also a highly significant improvement in the mean uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) from logMAR 1.41±0.49 preoperatively to 0.51±0.16 postoperatively (P<0.001) and the mean corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) from 0.76±0.24 preoperatively to 0.49±0.13 after the operation (P<0.001). All aberrometric and mesopic vision parameters and most of the topographical indices demonstrated highly significant improvement that remains stable until the end of follow up. All recorded subjective data revealed a high degree of patient satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Two-stage approach (clear lens exchange with monofocal IOL followed by WFG-PRK) in selected cases of keratoconus is a safe, effective and highly predictable procedure with satisfactory visual and refractive results.

    • Endothelial parameters in central and peripheral cornea in patients wearing contact lenses

      2018, 11(11):1768-1773. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.06

      Abstract (1350) HTML (56) PDF 453.71 K (355) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To measure the parameters of endothelium in the central and peripheral parts of the cornea and evaluate the influence of wearing the hard and soft contact lenses on the mentioned parameters. METHODS: A specular microscope was used to measure the corneal endothelium parameters in both eyes of 139 Caucasians (a total of 278). All participants were divided into three groups: soft lens wearers, hard lens wearers and a control group. Factors, such as age, smoking, types of lens material, duration of lens wear and lens air permeability were assessed to determine their impact on the morphometric parameters of the endothelium. RESULTS: A lower percentage of hexagon-like cells and higher cell variation than in other groups were determined in hard contact lens wearers. The difference in density of endotheliocytes between the groups was not observed. The measurements of the morphometric parameters in soft contact lens wearers did not depend neither on the duration of lens wear, nor on air permeability. The relation between the patients’ age and the variation of endothelium parameters was determined in the group of hard contact lens wearers. CONCLUSION: Wearing hard contact lenses provokes pleomorphism and polymegethism of the corneal endothelium, while soft contact lenses do not impact any parameters of the endothelium, most likely due to higher air permeability.

    • Correlation between choroidal thickness and intraocular pressure after 23-gauge vitrectomy for idiopathic epiretinal membrane

      2018, 11(11):1774-1778. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.07

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      Abstract:AIM: To determine the relationship between the subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) following idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery. METHODS: Retrospective observational case series of patients who had undergone 23-gauge vitrectomy for an ERM. The measurements of CT and IOP were done at the baseline and 1d, 1wk, 1, 3, 6, and 12mo after the surgery. RESULTS: Forty-four eyes of 43 patients with a mean age of 69.8±9.5y were studied. The CT was 200.8±86.3 μm at the baseline, 210.1±83.5 μm at 1d, 213.2±85.4 μm at 1wk, 203.1±84.0 μm at 1mo, 197.5±85.5 μm at 3mo, 197.7±84.0 μm at 6mo, and 191.2±86.8 μm at 12mo after surgery. The CT on day 1 and week 1 after the surgery was significantly thicker than that at the baseline CT (P=0.0023 and P<0.0001). The CT at 12mo after surgery was significantly thinner than the baseline (P=0.0062). The IOP on day 1 and week 1 were significantly lower than the baseline (P<0.0001 and P=0.0042). The IOP at 1, 3, 6, and 12mo after surgery were significantly higher than the baseline IOP (P=0.0087, P=0.0023, P<0.00051, and P<0.0001). The rates of changes in the CT between baseline and day 1 and week 1 were significantly and negatively correlated with the rates of change in the IOP (P<0.0001 and P=0.046). In the group with the IOP change rate of -30% or less at 1d postoperatively, the change rate of CT was -21.1% to 31.2% (9.8%±12.4%) and in the group of -29% or more, it was -8.9% to 28.0% (2.6%±8.9%). The change rate of CT in the group with the IOP change rate of -30% or less was significantly higher than the group of -29% or more (P=0.016). CONCLUSION: CT increases soon after the ERM surgery which is probably due to the transient hypotony, showing that IOP may be a significant confounding factor for CT.

    • Air tamponade and without heavy liquid usage in pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair

      2018, 11(11):1779-1783. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.08

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      Abstract:AIM: To report the results of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) without operative use of heavy liquid, and utilizing air tamponade in selected cases. METHODS: RRD patients without severity of proliferative vitreoretinopathy C2 or more underwent PPV without operative use of heavy liquid, and utilizing air tamponade were consecutively enrolled. Alternative postoperative facedown position or lateral position was required for 3-5d. RESULTS: Totally 36 eyes of 36 patients (24 males, 66.7%) aged 53.8±10.9y underwent this modified surgery. The mean number of retinal break was 2.1±1.3. Most of the eyes (29, 80.6%) had retinal detachment involving more than one quadrant. Twenty-two (61.1%) eyes with cataract had combined phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. The mean follow up time was 4.6±1.8mo. Two eyes with retinal redetachment underwent a second retinal repair surgery with silicone oil tamponade, yielding the primary reattachment rate to 94.4% (34/36). Six (16.7%) eyes had intraocular pressure higher than 25 mm Hg. The visual acuity (logMAR) improved from 0.98±0.74 preoperatively to 0.52±0.31 postoperatively (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The success rate of this modified retinal repair surgery is comparable with traditional surgery. This technique can be considered for certain retinal detachment patients, since its apparent advantages included lower surgical complications, reduced surgery expenditure, shorter time for postoperative facedown position, and avoiding silicone oil removal surgery.

    • A quantitative comparison of five optical coherence tomography angiography systems in clinical performance

      2018, 11(11):1784-1795. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.09

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      Abstract:AIM: To compare the clinical performance of 4 spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) systems: AngioVueTM, AngioPlexTM, Spectralis® OCTA, AngioScan, and 1 swept-source (SS) OCTA SS OCT AngioTM. METHODS: Twenty-seven undilated right eyes of 27 participants underwent OCTA examination using five different systems respectively for both 3×3 and 6×6 mm2 scan pattern (Spectralis OCTA for 3×3 mm2 scan only). Image quality, including vessel valid visibility and the number of motion artifacts, and acquisition time were evaluated. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni's post-test and Friedman test with Dunn's post-test were used to compare measurements. RESULTS: The age of the subjects was 28.19±5.55y (range, 23-49y). The spherical equivalent refraction was -2.55±1.84 D (range, 0.00 to -5.25 D). Significant difference was observed in the evaluation of vessel valid visibility (AngioVue the highest: 0.111±0.031 for 3×3 mm2 scan and 0.128±0.020 for 6×6 mm2 scan), number of motion artifacts (AngioVue the fewest: 0.778±1.086 for 3×3 mm2 scan and 0.333±0.620 for 6×6 mm2 scan) and acquisition time (AngioPlex the shortest: 8.537±1.921s for 3×3 mm2 scan and 8.298±1.741s for 6×6 mm2 scan; all P<0.001). CONCLUSION: There is poor agreement of measurements among systems. AngioVue provides images with the highest vessel valid visibility and the fewest motion artifacts. AngioPlex achieves the shortest acquisition.

    • Comparison of persistent submacular fluid in different preoperative macular status after vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

      2018, 11(11):1796-1801. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.10

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      Abstract:AIM: To compare the incidence of persistent submacular fluid (SMF) and visual outcome after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in different preoperative macular status according to optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: A non-randomized, retrospective review was performed for patients who underwent successful PPV for RRD. OCT exams were taken preoperatively and 1mo after surgery, until SMF disappeared. According to the preoperative macular status on OCT, patients were divided into two groups: macula-off RRD (Group A) and macula-on RRD (Group B). In Group A, there were two subgroups: macula partly detached (Group A1) and macula totally detached (Group A2). The main outcome measures were the presence of SMF on OCT 1mo after surgery, and the preoperative and postoperative best corrected visual acuities (BCVA), among the different groups and depending on the presence or absence of persistent SMF. RESULTS: A total of 139 eyes of 139 patients were included in the study. Persistent SMF at 1mo after surgery was 15.8% (22/139), all occurring in Group A (22/101); Group B had no SMF at 1mo after surgery (0/38, P=0.002). The incidence of persistent SMF at 1mo after surgery in Group A1 was 50% (14/28), and in Group A2 was 11.0% (8/73, P<0.001). Significant differences were shown between the presence and absence of persistent SMF on foveola-off RRD, the preoperative BCVA, the 1mo postoperative BCVA, and the degree of the BCVA improvement from 1mo postoperatively to the final follow-up (P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the final BCVA (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Persistent SMF after PPV for retinal detachment is associated with preoperative macular status. Macula-uninvolving RRD shows no persistent SMF after PPV. Macular partly detached RRD has a higher incidence of SMF than macula totally detached RRD after PPV. The persistence of SMF may be responsible for the delayed visual recovery, whereas there were no significant differences in the final visual acuity.

    • One-year real-world outcomes of ranibizumab 0.5 mg treatment in Taiwanese patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a subgroup analysis of the REAL study

      2018, 11(11):1802-1808. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.11

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      Abstract:AIM: To assess the effectiveness and safety of ranibizumab 0.5 mg in Taiwanese patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) by performing a retrospective exploratory subgroup analysis of the REAL study. METHODS: REAL was a 12-month, observational, prospective, non-interventional phase IV post-marketing surveillance study conducted at 9 centers in Taiwan. The study collected data as part of the routine patient visits from the medical records of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration treated with ranibizumab 0.5 mg according to local standard medical practice and local label and/or reimbursement guidelines. The presence of PCV at baseline was determined using indocyanine green angiography. RESULTS: At baseline, PCV was diagnosed in 64 of the 303 enrolled patients (21.1%). Of these, 41 patients (64.1%) had received prior treatment; 15 (23.4%) patients had received ranibizumab. The intent-to-treat population included 58 patients; 47 (80%) who received ranibizumab and 11 (20%) who received ranibizumab plus photodynamic therapy (PDT; 9 patients received once, 2 patients received twice). Bevacizumab was used as a concomitant medication in a similar percentage of patients who received ranibizumab (43%, n=20) or ranibizumab plus PDT (45%, n=5). In patients who received ranibizumab, visual acuity (VA) at baseline was 50.1±12.9 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters, and the gain at month 12 was 1.1±17.8 letters. In patients who received ranibizumab plus PDT, VA at baseline was 51.4±15.9 letters, and there was a marked gain in VA at month 12 (14.0±9.2 letters, P=0.0009). In the intent-to-treat population, the reduction in central retinal subfield thickness from baseline at month 12 was 69.6±122.6 μm (baseline: 310.8±109.8 μm, P=0.0004). The safety results were consistent with the well-characterized safety profile of ranibizumab. CONCLUSION: In real-world settings, ranibizumab 0.5 mg treatment for 12mo results in maintenance of VA and reduction in central retinal subfield thickness in Taiwanese patients with PCV. Improvements in VA are observed in patients who received ranibizumab plus PDT. There are no new safety findings.

    • Preventing condensation of objective lens in noncontact wide-angle viewing systems during vitrectomy

      2018, 11(11):1809-1813. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.12

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      Abstract:AIM: To assess the optimal conditions for preventing condensation of objective lens during vitrectomy with noncontact wide-angle viewing systems (WAVSs). METHODS: We explored the effectiveness of the coating with ophthalmic viscoelastic device (OVDs) on the corneal surface and the soaking the objective lens in warm-saline for preventing condensation of objective lens. First, to find the optimal soaking time to keep the objective lens warm, we measured the temperature of objective lens every minute after soaking in warm saline. Second, to find optimal distance between cornea and objective lens, which provide as wide a view as possible and less condensation at the same time, we measured the condensation time with different distances. With the obtained optimal soaking time and distance, we explored the effect of coating cornea with OVDs and soaking objective lens in warm saline on condensation time. RESULTS: One and 5min of soaking in warm saline was most effective for keeping the lens warm enough (45.1℃±2.1℃ for 1min and 46.4℃±1.0℃ for 5min, P=0.109). The mean condensation times for the control group at 1, 3, and 5 mm from corneal surface to objective lens were 1±0.4, 4±1.4, 190±26.1s, respectively, thus 5 mm was most optimal distance for vitrectomy with WAVSs. For the OVD coating group, the mean condensation times were 1.5±0.3, 13±1.4, and 200±23.9s at 1, 3, and 5 mm distance and borderline significant compared with control group (P=0.068, 0.051, and 0.063, respectively). With the 1-minute warm saline soaking group, the mean condensation time were extended to 188±34.4, 416±65.7, and 600±121.3s at 1, 3, and 5 mm distance and statistically significant compared with control (P=0.043, 0.041 and 0.043, respectively). CONCLUSION: OVD coating on corneal surface shows no difference on condensation time with control group. However, soaking the objective lens in warm saline revealed statistically significant extension of condensation time compared to control group. Therefore, keeping the objective lens warm with soaking in warm saline is a simple but effective to prevent condensation of objective lens during vitrectomy. The thermodynamics between objective lens and cornea during vitrectomy warrants further investigation.

    • Abnormal resting-state functional network centrality in patients with high myopia: evidence from a voxel-wise degree centrality analysis

      2018, 11(11):1814-1820. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.13

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      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the functional networks underlying the brain-activity changes of patients with high myopia using the voxel-wise degree centrality (DC) method. METHODS: In total, 38 patients with high myopia (HM) (17 males and 21 females), whose binocular refractive diopter were -6.00 to -7.00 D, and 38 healthy controls (17 males and 21 females), closely matched in age, sex, and education levels, participated in the study. Spontaneous brain activities were evaluated using the voxel-wise DC method. The receiver operating characteristic curve was measured to distinguish patients with HM from healthy controls. Correlation analysis was used to explore the relationship between the observed mean DC values of the different brain areas and the behavioral performance. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, HM patients had significantly decreased DC values in the right inferior frontal gyrus/insula, right middle frontal gyrus, and right supramarginal/inferior parietal lobule (P<0.05). In contrast, HM patients had significantly increased DC values in the right cerebellum posterior lobe, left precentral gyrus/postcentral gyrus, and right middle cingulate gyrus (P<0.05). However, no relationship was found between the observed mean DC values of the different brain areas and the behavioral performance (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: HM is associated with abnormalities in many brain regions, which may indicate the neural mechanisms of HM. The altered DC values may be used as a useful biomarker for the brain activity changes in HM patients.

    • Preliminary study on visual recognition under low visibility conditions caused by artificial dynamic smog

      2018, 11(11):1821-1828. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.14

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      Abstract:AIM: To quantitatively evaluate the effect of a simulated smog environment on human visual function by psychophysical methods. METHODS: The smog environment was simulated in a 40×40×60 cm3 glass chamber filled with a PM2.5 aerosol, and 14 subjects with normal visual function were examined by psychophysical methods with the foggy smog box placed in front of their eyes. The transmission of light through the smog box, an indication of the percentage concentration of smog, was determined with a luminance meter. Visual function under different smog concentrations was evaluated by the E-visual acuity, crowded E-visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. RESULTS: E-visual acuity, crowded E-visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were all impaired with a decrease in the transmission rate (TR) according to power functions, with invariable exponents of -1.41, -1.62 and -0.7, respectively, and R2 values of 0.99 for E and crowded E-visual acuity, 0.96 for contrast sensitivity. Crowded E-visual acuity decreased faster than E-visual acuity. There was a good correlation between the TR, extinction coefficient and visibility under heavy-smog conditions. CONCLUSION: Increases in smog concentration have a strong effect on visual function.

    • Clinical features of posterior microphthalmic and nanophthalmic eyes

      2018, 11(11):1829-1834. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.15

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      Abstract:AIM: To clinically differentiate nanophthalmos (NO) and posterior microphthalmos (PM) and to explore the mechanisms related to papillomacular folds (PMF). METHODS: Medical records of 34 unrelated patients with microphthalmos (54 eyes) from April 2009 to October 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Fourteen eyes of 7 unrelated patients with NO and PM were included in the study. The presenting age of the NO cohort was significantly higher compared with the PM cohort (NO: 27±16y; PM: 3.7±0.6y). PMF was more likely to occur in cases with PM than in NO (25% in NO, 100% in PM). The anatomic features of PMF from optical coherence tomography (OCT) included: ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer and outer nuclear layer. In eyes without an apparent PMF (these were all NO eyes), rudimentary fovea without a foveal pit was noted. Four eyes that were NO developed angle closure glaucoma. Three NO eyes developed exudative retinal detachment and were successfully treated with lamellar sclerectomy. CONCLUSION: Posterior segment changes are pervasive both in PM and NO. Complications like angle closure glaucoma and exudative retinal detachment are likely to occur in eyes with NO but not with PM. Detailed OCT analysis found that PMF was partially a neural retinal issue, suggesting that redundancy of retinal issues involved only inner retinal layers.

    • >Investigation
    • A retrospective study of 2228 cases with eyelid tumors

      2018, 11(11):1835-1841. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.16

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      Abstract:AIM: To describe the histopathologic and clinical features of eyelid tumor cases from Tianjin Eye Hospital during 2002 to 2015. METHODS: In this retrospective study, a total of 2228 cases of eyelid tumors with pathologic diagnoses were enrolled. The eyelid tumors were classified into three groups according to tumor origin: epidermal, adnexal and miscellaneous, including melanocytic, neural and vascular lesions. Inflammatory tumor-like lesions were excluded. The clinical characteristics of the eyelid tumors were analyzed, including age, gender and lesion location. RESULTS: Most eyelid tumors were epidermal in origin (1080, 48.5%), followed by miscellaneous (885, 39.7%) and adnexal tumors (263, 11.8%). Among all the tumors, 292 (13.1%) were malignant lesions, 1910 (85.7%) benign and 26 (1.1%) premalignant lesions. Most malignant tumors originated from epidermal cells (60.0%), followed by adnexal cells (34.6%). The most common malignant tumors were basal cell carcinomas (56.5%) followed by sebaceous carcinoma (34.6%), squamous cell carcinomas (3.8%) and lymphoma/plasmocytoma (1.7%). The benign and premalignant eyelid lesions mostly originated from epidermal cells (46.4%) followed by miscellaneous cell sources (45.2%), including melanocytic nevus (33.8%), seborrheic keratosis (13.7%), squamous cell papilloma (13.0%) and epidermal cysts (11.5%). CONCLUSION: Eyelid tumors are mostly epithelial in origin. Benign tumors are significantly more common than malignant tumors with an obvious female predominance, and the most frequent malignant tumor are basal cell carcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma and squamous cell carcinomas. The tumor clinical features varied among the different subtypes.

    • Age related changes of the central lamina cribrosa thickness, depth and prelaminar tissue in healthy Chinese subjects

      2018, 11(11):1842-1847. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.17

      Abstract (1232) HTML (57) PDF 578.34 K (326) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the variation in the central lamina cribrosa thickness (cLCT), and the central anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (cALCSD), as well as the central prelaminar tissue thickness (cPLTT) related to age in healthy Chinese subjects. METHODS: A total of 96 eyes from 96 Chinese healthy subjects were recruited. According to age, the 96 cases were divided into three groups: the young group (YG, 18-39y), middle-age group (MG, 40-59y) and older-age group (OG, 60y and above). Lamina cribrosa images were obtained from all participants using radial linear protocol by enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The cLCT, cALCSD and cPLTT were calculated from the average value of the lamina cribrosa thickness, anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth and prelaminar tissue thickness in the optic nerve head (ONH) centre point and paracentral points (150 μm from the centre point in the horizontal and vertical directions). RESULTS: For the total subjects, the mean cLCT, cALCSD and cPLTT were 235.18±41.27, 358.02±93.80 and 182.02±92.11 μm, respectively. No statistically significant differences in cLCT, cALCSD or cPLTT were found between gender and different eyes (P=0.27-0.92). The cLCT of the OG was the thickest among the three groups, while the cPLTT of the YG was the thickest among the three groups (P<0.05). Age was positively correlated with cLCT (r=0.42, P<0.001), and negatively correlated with cPLTT (r=-0.24, P=0.02). No significant correlation was found between the age and cALCSD (r=-0.06, P=0.55). And no correlation has been found between axial length and cLCT, cALCSD and cPLTT (P=0.11-0.81). CONCLUSION: The impact of age on the cLCT and the cPLLTT should be taken into account when analysing glaucoma and other diseases related to lamina cribrosa.

    • >Meta-Analysis
    • Efficacy and safety of vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling for diabetic macular edema: a Meta-analysis

      2018, 11(11):1848-1855. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.18

      Abstract (1351) HTML (56) PDF 2.11 M (382) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, SionMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, CNKI databases and Wanfang databases, published until Oct. 2017, were searched to identify studies comparing the clinical outcomes following vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling, for treating DME. Pooled results were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for vitrectomy with and without ILM peeling with regard to best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), and complication incidents. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies involving 857 eyes were included of which three studies were Chinese and the rests were English literatures. Meta-analysis indicated that compared with vitrectomy alone, vitrectomy with ILM peeling could improve BCVA more obviously (OR=1.66, 95%CI: 1.12-2.46, P=0.01) and had higher rate of CMT reduction (OR=3.89, 95%CI: 1.37-11.11, P=0.01). There were significant statistical differences between the two surgical methods for both BCVA and CMT (P<0.05). For the incidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications, the incidence of epiretinal membrane (ERM) was slightly lower in the ILM peeling group than the group without ILM peeling (OR=0.38, 95%CI: 0.07-2.00, P=0.25), although insigni?cant statistically. Other incidences of overall complications, iatrogenic peripheral retinal break and increased intraocular pressure indicated no significant difference between two groups (OR=1.19, 95%CI: 0.82-1.73, P=0.36; OR=1.21, 95%CI: 0.66-2.21, P=0.53; OR=1.34, 95%CI: 0.75-2.40, P=0.32). CONCLUSION: Vitrectomy is effective for DME and the effect can be improved by additional ILM peeling, especially for anatomical efficacy, without increasing the incidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications. However, it is imperative to gain more evaluation in the future due to the paucity of prospective randomized study.

    • >Review
    • New insight into the role of the complement in the most common types of retinopathy-current literature review

      2018, 11(11):1856-1864. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.19

      Abstract (1242) HTML (59) PDF 342.61 K (336) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Pathological neovascularisation, which is a critical component of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), is a frequent cause of compromised vision or blindness. Researchers continuously investigate the role of the complement system in the pathogenesis of retinopathy. Studies have confirmed the role of factors H and I in the development of AMD, and factors H and B in the development of DR. Other components, such as C2, C3, and C5, have also been considered. However, findings on the involvement of the complement system in the pathogenesis of ROP are still inconclusive. This paper presents a review of the current literature data, pointing to the novel results and achievements from research into the role of complement components in the development of retinopathy. There is still a need to continue research in new directions, and to gather more detailed information about this problem which will be useful in the treatment of these diseases.

    • >Brief Report
    • Clinical and laboratory features of PCR-confirmed periocular tuberculosis in China

      2018, 11(11):1865-1869. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.20

      Abstract (1136) HTML (53) PDF 1.79 M (349) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Experts lack knowledge of periocular tuberculosis (TB) in China. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) shows advantages in diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB. Our study aims to explore the clinical and laboratory features of PCR-confirmed periocular TB. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of presumptive periocular TB and performed nested PCR test to confirm diagnosis. Nine cases were recruited. Clinical symptoms were chronic and insidious. Eight cases achieved favorable visual acuity, while one underwent enucleation due to fungal-TB panophthalmitis. Sensitivity of caseous necrosis, acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining and interferon γ release assay (T-SPOT) test are 33.3%, 44.4% and 85.7% respectively. Low lymphocyte percentage (P=0.019) and high monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (P=0.042) positively correlate with AFB staining. Male gender (P=0.048) and Langhans giant cell (P=0.048) positively correlate with caseous necrosis. To conclude, traditional TB ancillary tests are not as sensitive as nested PCR technique. Several factors facilitate diagnosis including male gender, decreased lymphocytes, and typical Langhans giant cells.

    • Posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens for the correction of high myopic anisometropic amblyopia in adults

      2018, 11(11):1870-1874. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.21

      Abstract (2178) HTML (62) PDF 364.02 K (333) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:This study aims to evaluate the clinical results of posterior chamber implantable collamer lens (ICL) implantation in adults with high myopic anisometropic amblyopia. Thirteen patients aged 27.04±7.24y (range 19.2 to 42.5) were studied. ICL implantation was performed in 13 amblyopic eyes. The mean myopic anisometropia was significantly dropped from -10.70±3.02 D preoperatively to +0.09±1.67 D at 1mo postoperatively. The logMAR CDVA at 3d, 1, 3 and mean 9mo postoperatively improved by a mean of 1.69, 2.50, 3.01 and 3.00 lines and gained more than 2 lines accounted for 23.08% (3 eyes), 41.67% (5 eyes), 63.63% (7 eyes) and 55.56% (5 eyes), respectively. The contrast sensitivity of amblyopic eyes was significantly increased after surgery. Four patients partially recovered near stereopsis (400” to 100”). There was no severe complications were observed. ICL implantation alone can improve vision, contrast sensitivity, and partial restoration of binocular vision in adult patients with high myopic anisometropia.

    • X-linked juvenile retinoschisis: phenotypic and genetic characterization

      2018, 11(11):1875-1878. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.22

      Abstract (1532) HTML (57) PDF 735.15 K (347) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Juvenile X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS, MIM#312700) belongs to a group of the vitreoretinal dystrophies. We aimed to describe the phenotype-genotype correlation of three XLRS cases in juveniles with different novel mutations from the Lithuanian population. The patients demonstrated macular retinoschisis and typical cyst-like cavities on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images. The mean central foveal thickness was 569.7 μm. Two patients presented with peripheral retinoschisis. Flash electroretinogram demonstrated a reduced b/a ratio (<1.0) in all patients. RS1 (NM_000330.3) gene coding exons Sanger sequencing was performed. RS1 c.599G>T (p.R200L) mutation was detected in one case, showing to be pathogenic in silico analysis. c. (92_97) insC (p.W33fs) mutation was identified for another patient, indicating the variant is possibly damaging in silico analysis. The third case was identified with a pathogenic mutation c.422C>G (p.R141H), HGMD CM981753. These are the first cases of XLRS in the Lithuanian population confirmed by molecular genotyping. Presented patients had a different genotype but similar phenotypic traits.

    • >Letter to the Editor
    • Serous macular detachment due to nasally located optic disc pit-coloboma

      2018, 11(11):1879-1880. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.23

      Abstract (1276) HTML (0) PDF 392.64 K (339) Comment (0) Favorites


    • Primary sino-orbital peripheral T-cell lymphoma presenting as unilateral periorbital swelling: a case report

      2018, 11(11):1881-1883. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.24

      Abstract (1887) HTML (0) PDF 976.96 K (374) Comment (0) Favorites


    • >Comment and Response
    • Comment on “Assessment of the long-term visual and anatomical outcomes of ranibizumab to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration”

      2018, 11(11):1884-1886. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.11.25

      Abstract (1511) HTML (0) PDF 269.35 K (359) Comment (0) Favorites


Editors-in-Chief: Yan-Nian Hui and Peter Wiedemann

Established in April, 2008

ISSN 2222-3959 print

ISSN 2227-4898 online

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