• Volume 11,Issue 2,2018 Table of Contents
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    • >Basic Research
    • Role of vasoactive intestinal peptide in Aspergillus fumigatus-infected cornea

      2018, 11(2):183-188. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.01

      Abstract (2051) HTML (56) PDF 2.47 M (513) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the anti-inflammatory role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) ketatitis. METHODS: Expression of VIP was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in C57BL/6 and BALB/c normal and A. fumigatus infected corneas. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with recombinant (r) VIP, while BALB/c mice were pretreated with VIP antagonist, and then infected with A. fumigatus. Clinical score was recorded. Expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1), and neutrophil infiltration were tested by PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. RESULTS: VIP mRNA expression in BALB/c cornea was higher than C57BL/6 cornea at 1 and 3d post infection (p.i.). rVIP treatment of C57BL/6 mice showed alleviated disease and down-regulated expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), while IL-10 expression was up-regulated. Neutrophil infiltration and TLR4, IL-17 expression were decreased after rVIP treatment, while LOX-1 expression was up-regulated in C57BL/6. VIP antagonist pretreatment showed increased disease and higher IL-1β, TNF-α, TLR4, IL-17 and MPO levels, while IL-10 and LOX-1 levels were down-regulated in BALB/c mice. CONCLUSION: rVIP alleviate disease response of C57BL/6 mice. VIP antagonist resulted in worsened disease of BALB/c mice. VIP proposed anti-inflammatory role in A. fumigatus keratitis.

    • Anti-fibrotic effect of rosmarinic acid on inhibition of pterygium epithelial cells

      2018, 11(2):189-195. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.02

      Abstract (1541) HTML (59) PDF 1.02 M (608) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the anti-fibrosis effect of rosmarinic acid (RA) in pterygium epithelial cells (PECs) to determine if RA is a potent agent for treating pterygium. METHODS: The PECs (1×104 cells/mL) were treated with 100 μmol/L of RA for 1, 3 and 6h. After RA treatment, the cell viability was determined by staining with acridine orange/DAPI and analysis via a NucleoCounter NC-3000. The protein expression levels of type I collagen, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), TGF-β type II receptor (TGF-βRII), p-Smad1/5, p-Smad2, p-Smad3, and Smad4 of the cell lysates were measured by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: The cell viability of PECs was significantly decreased after RA treatment (P<0.01). As the result, RA reduced the protein expression of type I collagen and TGF-β1 of PECs. Additionally, RA also inhibited TGF-β1/Smad signaling by decreasing the protein expressions of TGF-βRII, p-Smad1/5, p-Smad2, p-Smad3, and Smad4. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrate that RA could inhibit fibrosis of PECs by down-regulating type I collagen expression and TGF-β1/Smad signaling. Therefore, RA is a potent therapeutic agent for the treatment of pterygium.

    • Age-related pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic changes in human aqueous humor

      2018, 11(2):196-200. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.03

      Abstract (1964) HTML (55) PDF 442.68 K (512) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To reveal age-related aqueous cytokine changes in human aqueous humor. METHODS: Aqueous humor was collected from 12 young children (3-6.5 years old) and 71 healthy adults (22-106 years old) with cataract but without other systemic or ocular disorders. Levels of 22 cytokines, chemokines and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured and analyzed. RESULTS: The following proteins showed significant increase from childhood to adult: interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-13, IL-6, IL-12(p70), IL-10, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, IFN-α2 and VEGF (all P<0.05). IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-12(p70), IL-10, CCL3, CXCL9 and VEGF also showed moderate strength age-related increase in the adult group (r>0.5). The strength of correlation between aging and CCL4 were fair (r=0.398). The concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-1β and TNF-α were low in both groups. CONCLUSION: From childhood to adult, the immunological milieu of the anterior chamber become more pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic. Such changes may represent the parainflammation state of the human eye.

    • miR-211 promotes lens epithelial cells apoptosis by targeting silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog 1 in age-related cataracts

      2018, 11(2):201-207. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.04

      Abstract (2014) HTML (61) PDF 629.99 K (491) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To detect the expression of miR-211 in age-related cataract tissue, explore the effects of miR-211 on lens epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis, and identify its target gene. METHODS: This study used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to measure the expression of miR-211 and its predicted target gene [silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1)] in 46 anterior lens capsules collected from age-related cataract patients. Human lens epithelial cell line (SRA01/04) cells were transfected with either miR-211 mimics, mimic controls, miR-211 inhibitors or inhibitor controls, 72h after transfection, miRNA and protein expression of SIRT1 were measured using RT-qPCR and Western blotting; then cells were exposed to 200 μmol/L H2O2 for 1h, whereupon cell viability was measured by MTS assay, caspase-3 assay was performed. Dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to verify the relationship between miR-211 of SIRT1. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, expression of miR-211 was significantly increased (P<0.001), the miRNA and protein expression of SIRT1 were significantly decreased (P<0.001) in the anterior lens capsules of patients with age-related cataracts. Relative to the control group, SIRT1 miRNA and protein levels in the miR-211 mimic group were significantly reduced, cell proliferation activity significantly decreased, and caspase-3 activity was significantly increased (P<0.001). In the miR-211 inhibitor group, SIRT1 miRNA and protein expression were significantly increased, cell proliferation activity significantly increased, and caspase-3 activity was significantly decreased (P<0.001). A dual luciferase reporter assay confirmed that SIRT1 is a direct target of miR-211. CONCLUSION: miR-211 is highly expressed in the anterior lens capsules of patients with age-related cataracts. By negatively regulating the expression of SIRT1, miR-211 promotes lens epithelial cell apoptosis and inhibits lens epithelial cell proliferation.

    • Effect of the Notch signaling pathway on retinal ganglion cells and its neuroprotection in rats with acute ocular hypertension

      2018, 11(2):208-215. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.05

      Abstract (1958) HTML (52) PDF 1.03 M (448) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To explore the effect of the Notch signaling pathway on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and optic nerve in rats with acute ocular hypertension (OH). METHODS: Totally 48 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were included, among which 36 rats were selected to establish acute OH models. OH rats received a single intravitreal injection of 2 μL phosphate buffered solution (PBS) and another group of OH rats received a single intravitreal injection of 10 μmol/L γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot assay were adopted to determine the mRNA level of Notch and the protein levels of Notch, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43). The RGC apoptosis conditions were assessed by TUNEL staining. RESULTS: The OH rats and PBS-injected rats had increased expression levels of Notch1, Bax, caspase-3, and GAP-43, decreased expression levels of Bcl-2, and increased RGC apoptosis, with severer macular edema and RGCs more loosely aligned, when compared with the normal rats. The DAPT-treated rats displayed increased expression levels of Notch1, Bax, caspase-3, and GAP-43, decreased expression levels of Bcl-2, and increased RGC apoptosis, in comparison with the OH rats and PBS-injected rats. RGCs were hardly observed and macular edema became severe in the DAPT-treated rat. CONCLUSION: The Notch signaling pathway may suppress the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells and enhances the regeneration of the damaged optic nerves in rats with acute OH.

    • Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and fractalkine play opposite roles in angiogenesis via recruitment of different macrophage subtypes

      2018, 11(2):216-222. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.06

      Abstract (1851) HTML (58) PDF 1.28 M (630) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To explore the interaction between macrophages and chemokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and fractalkine/CX3CL1] and the effects of their interaction on neovascularization. METHODS: Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, donated by healthy volunteers, were separated and cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, then induced into macrophages by stimulation with 30 μg/L granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The expression of CCR2 and/or CX3CR1 in the macrophages was examined using flow cytometry. Macrophages were then stimulated with recombinant human CCL2 (rh-CCL2) or recombinant human CX3CL1 (rh-CX3CL1). The expression of angiogenesis-related genes, including VEGF-A, THBS-1 and ADAMTS-1 were examined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Supernatants from stimulated macrophages were used in an assay of human retinal endothelial cell (HREC) proliferation. Finally, stimulated macrophages were co-cultured with HREC in a migration assay. RESULTS: The expression rate of CCR2 in macrophages stimulated by GM-CSF was 42%±1.9%. The expression rate of CX3CR1 was 71%±3.3%. Compared with vehicle-treated groups, gene expression of VEGF-A in the macrophages was greater in 150 mg/L CCL2-treated groups (P<0.05), while expression of THBS-1 and ADAMTS-1 was significantly lower (P<0.05). By contrast, compared with vehicle-treated groups, expression of VEGF-A in 150 mg/L CX3CL1-treated groups was significantly lower (P<0.05), while expression of THBS-1 and ADAMTS-1 was greater (P<0.05). Supernatants from CCL2 treated macrophages promoted proliferation of HREC (P<0.05), while supernatants from CX3CL1-treated macrophages inhibited the proliferation of HREC (P<0.05). HREC migration increased when co-cultured with CCL2-treated macrophages, but decreased with CX3CL1-treated macrophages (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: CCL2 and CX3CL1 exert different effects in regulation of macrophage in expression of angiogenesis-related factors, including VEGF-A, THBS-1 and ADAMTS-1. Our findings suggest that CCL2 and CX3CL1 may be candidate proteins for further exploration of novel targets for treatment of ocular neovascularization.

    • >Clinical Research
    • Modified ulcer debridement in the treatment of the superficial fungal infection of the cornea

      2018, 11(2):223-229. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.07

      Abstract (1721) HTML (60) PDF 1.59 M (469) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of modified corneal ulcer debridement in superficial fungal keratitis unresponsive to medications. METHODS: A total of 209 patients (209 eyes) with fungal keratitis, involving no more than 50% of the stromal depth and not responding to antifungal agents for 2wk, were recruited in this retrospective, noncomparative study. The patients were treated with modified corneal ulcer debridement. All visible corneal infiltrates were removed under an operating microscope to obtain a clean stromal bed and smooth incised edges. Antifungal drugs were used immediately after surgery. Healing time of the ulcers was recorded. Fungal recurrence, visual acuity, corneal thickness and risk factors for treatment failure were monitored. RESULTS: The follow-up was 13.6±5.8mo. The corneal ulcers healed in 195 of 209 eyes (93.3%), with a mean healing time of 8.4±6.8d. The other 14 eyes were further treated by penetrating keratoplasty (PK) (1 eye), anterior lamellar keratoplasty (LK) (7 eyes), conjunctival flap covering (4 eyes) or amniotic membrane transplantation (2 eyes). The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was ≥20/70 in 80.3% of the eyes, ≥20/40 in 56.9% of the eyes, and ≥20/25 in 27.3% of the eyes. The corneas at the lesions became thinner, but all in the safe range. No fungal recurrence or corneal ectasis developed during the follow-up. The risk of treatment failure was higher in patients with preoperative hypopyon (P=0.036) and ever using steroid (P=0.025). CONCLUSION: Modified surgical debridement is a simple and effective method for the treatment of superficial fungal infection of the cornea, with improved visual acuity and no recurrence. Such an intervention in time can rapidly control fungal infection and largely shorten corneal ulcer healing time.

    • Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of therapeutic bandage contact lenses on post-cataract surgery patients

      2018, 11(2):230-234. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.08

      Abstract (2449) HTML (54) PDF 301.41 K (435) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the safety of therapeutic bandage contact lens for post-cataract surgery patients and to illustrate its efficacy on post-operative comfort and tear-film stability. METHODS: A total of 40 participants were recruited and randomly divided into two groups. Group one was instructed to wear bandage contact lenses for a week and use antibiotic eye drops for a month since the first day after surgery. Group two received sub-conjunctival injection of tobramycin and was asked to wear eye pads on the first day after surgery and then were instructed to use antibiotic eye drops as the first group did. Ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire, slit-lamp microscope examination of tear break-up time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein score (CFS), tear meniscus height (TMH) together with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and corneal topography were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: The subjective feeling (P=0.004), TBUT (P<0.001) and TMH (P=0.02) post-surgery had improved in patients who used bandage contact lenses compared with those who did not at 1wk post-surgery. Until three month postoperatively, the comfort degree (P=0.004) and TMH (P=0.01) of group two were still worse than group one. Moreover, TBUT (P<0.001) and CFS (P=0.004) of the group with eye pads got worse than the results before, whereas the group with bandage contact lenses recovered to normal. None of these patients had infections or other complications. CONCLUSION: Wearing therapeutic bandage contact lens after cataract surgery, compared with traditional eye-pads, is a safe method to improve tear-film stability and reduce post-operative discomfort without hindering corneal incision recovery.

    • Comparison of two Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy: cruciate pattern vs circular pattern with vitreous strand cutting

      2018, 11(2):235-239. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.09

      Abstract (1422) HTML (60) PDF 467.33 K (424) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the effects and safety of neodymium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy with vitreous strand cutting METHODS: A total of 40 eyes of 37 patients with symptomatic posterior capsular opacity (PCO) were included in this prospective randomized study and were randomly subjected to either cruciate pattern or round pattern Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy with vitreous strand cutting (modified round pattern). The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), refractive error, endothelial cell count (ECC), anterior segment parameters, including anterior chamber depth (ACD) and anterior chamber angle (ACA) were measured before and 1mo after the laser posterior capsulotomy. RESULTS: In both groups, the BCVA improved significantly (P<0.001 for the modified round pattern group, P=0.001 for the cruciate pattern group); the IOP and ECC did not significantly change. The ACD significantly decreased (P<0.001 for both) and the ACA significantly increased (P=0.001 for the modified round pattern group and P=0.034 for the cruciate group). The extent of changes in these parameters was not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSION: Modified round pattern Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy is an effective and safe method for the treatment of PCO. This method significantly changes the ACD and ACA, but the change in refraction is not significant. Modified round pattern Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy can be considered a good alternative procedure in patients with symptomatic PCO.

    • Managing high risk glaucoma with the Ahmed valve implant: 20 years of experience

      2018, 11(2):240-244. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.10

      Abstract (2203) HTML (63) PDF 1.06 M (435) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To estimate the efficacy and safety of the Ahmed implant in patients with high risk for failure after glaucoma surgery. METHODS: In 342 eyes of 342 patients with refractory glaucoma, even with application of medical treatment, the Ahmed valve was introduced for intraocular pressure (IOP) control, in the period of the last 20y. The nature of glaucoma was neovascular in 162 eyes, pseudophakic or aphakic in 49 eyes, inflammatory in 29 eyes and non working previous antiglaucomatic surgical interventions in 102 eyes. RESULTS: Follow-up ranged from 18 to 120mo with a mean follow-up of 63.2mo. IOP before the operation decreased from 31.6±10.4 mm Hg to 18.3±5.4 mm Hg (no systemic treatment) at the end of follow up period. When we compared the IOP values before the operation using ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (P<0.001). The success rate was 85.2% during the first semester, 76.8% at 12mo and 50.3% at the end of follow up period (18 to 120mo after implantation). Success rate was 25.7% in neovascular glaucoma, 63.2% in aphakic glaucoma and 73.8% in non working previous antiglaucomatic surgical interventions. Complications due to the implant were: serous choroidal detachment in 14.8%, blockage of the tube in 2.8%, malposition of the tube in 4.9%, suprachoroidal hemorrhage in 2.1%, cataract progression in 39.6% (phakic eyes), shallow anterior chamber in 9.2%, hyphaema in 28.9%, exposure of valve in 2.6%, exposure of tube in 9.3%, hypotony in 4.9% and conjunctival fibrosis in 41.5%. CONCLUSION: Despite the fact that Ahmed valve implant had suchlike results as other implants concerning the IOP control, complications rate due to hypotony or over filtration in the first days after the intervention are not that frequent as with other valve implants.

    • Functional evaluation of the filtering bleb by ultrasound biomicroscopy after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C

      2018, 11(2):245-250. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.11

      Abstract (2068) HTML (53) PDF 1.18 M (483) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To study the role of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in the assessment of the bleb function after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including all cases had undergone trabeculectomy with MMC 0.2 mg/mL for 3min. Participants were recruited from the follow-up cases at Department of Ophthalmology, Tanta University in the period from August 2015 to August 2016. Full history taking and ophthalmological examination were performed. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry and the history of prescribed postoperative antiglaucoma medications was recorded. Accordingly, the trabeculectomy blebs were divided clinically into successful blebs when the IOP post-operative was ≤18 mm Hg without medications. Scanning examination of the filtering bleb using UBM examination was performed at the period from 2 to 36mo after trabeculectomy (13.6±9.7mo). RESULTS: This study included 33 trabeculectomy filtering blebs of 25 patients (9 males and 16 females). The mean age of patients was 53.2±14.2y (range 25-71y). We had 20 eyes with complete success, 9 eyes with qualified success, and 4 eyes with failure after trabeculectomy with MMC. The blebs were classified into successful blebs (IOP ≤18 mm Hg without antiglaucoma medications), others were classified into qualified successful and failed blebs. There was a significant correlation between certain UBM findings (intra-bleb reflectivity, draining sub-scleral tract, bleb height, and intrableb fluid cysts) and cases with different grades of clinical functional success (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: UBM is an objective tool in the functional assessment of the post-trabeculectomy filtering bleb through a significant correlation between certain UBM parameters and the different grades of clinical functional success.

    • Trabeculectomy with Ologen implant versus mitomycin C in congenital glaucoma secondary

      2018, 11(2):251-255. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.12

      Abstract (2318) HTML (63) PDF 860.11 K (499) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of collagen matrix implant [Ologen (OLO) implant] versus mitomycin C (MMC) with subscleral trabeculectomy (SST) for the surgical treatment of congenital glaucoma (CG) in Sturge- Weber Syndrome (SWS). METHODS: A prospective comparative randomized study of 20 eyes of 16 patients with CG associated with SWS was divided into two groups. The first group (MMC Group) included 10 eyes that were subjected to SST with MMC. The second group (OLO Group) included 10 eyes that were subjected to trabeculectomy with a collagen matrix implant (OLO implant). Postoperative evaluation included intraocular pressure (IOP) level, bleb evaluation, complications, and the need for further medication or surgical intervention. RESULTS: The mean preoperative IOP was 29±3.16 mm Hg in MMC and 29.8±3.08 mm Hg in OLO eyes. Mean 12-month percentage reduction in IOP was significant in both groups (57.9% and 56.3%). At the end of the 12 postoperative follow-up month, in the MMC Group, 80% of eyes achieved the complete success, 20% of eyes had qualified success with no failed surgery in comparison to OLO Group which 70% of eyes achieved the complete success, 20% of eyes had qualified success with 10% failed surgery. In terms of complications, the MMC Group had a higher rate of complications than the OLO Group in the form of thin polycystic bleb in 6 eyes (60%), blebitis in only one eye (10%) treated with topical antibiotics, shallow anterior chamber in two eyes (20%). CONCLUSION: This study proves that the use of a collagen matrix implant yields equally effective results as MMC when combined with trabeculectomy for the treatment of CG in SWS. Furthermore, OLO implantation is safe and has low incidences of complications.

    • Correlation between macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness and visual acuity after resolution of the macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion

      2018, 11(2):256-261. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.13

      Abstract (1162) HTML (55) PDF 736.15 K (480) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To examine the thickness of the ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) in eyes with resolved macular edema (ME) in non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), applying spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and its relationship with visual acuity. METHODS: The retrospective observational case-control study included 30 eyes of non-ischemic CRVO patients with resolved ME (ME eyes) after treatment, and 30 eyes of non-ischemic CRVO patients without ME (non-ME eyes). The macular GCIPL thickness, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and central macular thickness (CMT) were measured on a SD-OCT scan. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine the correlation between the thickness of each and the visual acuity (VA). RESULTS: No significant difference in average GCIPL thickness, mean pRNFL thickness and CMT were observed between ME group and non-ME group (P=0.296, 0.183, 0.846). But, minimum GCIPL thickness was reduced in ME eyes compared with non-ME eyes (P=0.022). Final VA significantly correlated with the minimum GCIPL thickness in ME eyes (r=-0.482, P=0.007), whereas no correlation was found with average GCIPL thickness, average pRNFL thickness and mean CMT. CONCLUSION: Minimum GCIPL thickness is reduced in ME eyes compared with non-ME eyes, and correlated with the VA in non-ischemic CRVO. These results propose that inner retinal damage occurring in patients with ME secondary to non-ischemic CRVO may lead to permanent visual defect after treatment.

    • Paediatric retinal detachment: aetiology, characteristics and outcomes

      2018, 11(2):262-266. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.14

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      Abstract:AIM: To provide contemporary data on the aetiology, clinical features and outcomes of paediatric retinal detachment. METHODS: A retrospective review of all those under 16y who underwent surgical repair for retinal detachment at a single centre between the years 2008 and 2015 inclusive was performed. In each case the cause of retinal detachment, the type of detachment, the presence or absence of macular involvement, the number and form of reparative surgeries undertaken, and the surgical outcome achieved was recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-eight eyes of 24 patients, 15 (62.5%) of whom were male and 9 (37.5%) of whom were female, their mean age being 11.6y and range 2-16y developed retinal detachment over the eight year period studied. Trauma featured in the development of retinal detachment in 14 (50.0%) cases. Retinal detachment was associated with other ocular and/or systemic conditions in 11 (39.3%) cases. A mean of 3.0 procedures with a range of 1-9 procedures per patient were undertaken in the management of retinal detachment. Complex vitrectomy combined with scleral buckling or complex vitrectomy alone were those most frequently performed. Mean postoperative visual acuity was 1.2 logMAR with range 0.0-3.0 logMAR. In 22 of 26 (84.6%) cases which underwent surgical repair the retina was attached at last follow-up. CONCLUSION: Aggressive management of paediatric retinal detachment including re-operation increases the likelihood of anatomical success. In cases where the retinal detachment can be repaired by an external approach alone there is a more favourable visual outcome.

    • Real-life experience of ranibizumab therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration from Turkey

      2018, 11(2):267-273. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.15

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      Abstract:AIM: To report the real-life experience and clinical results of intravitreal ranibizumab injections to neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in a single institution in Turkey. METHODS: A total of 101 eyes of 89 patients with nAMD treated with intravitreal ranibizumab injection, followed up for at least 24mo between 2009 and June 2014, which were evaluated retrospectively. A pro re nata (PRN) treatment protocol was performed after the patients had received three, monthly loading injections. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness measurements were evaluated at baseline and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24mo. Number of injections and visits were also recorded. RESULTS: Of the 89 patients, 34 (38.2%) were male and 55 (61.8%) were female and the mean age was 74.0±9.5 (52-91)y. The mean follow-up period was 24.82±4.4 (24-29)mo. Mean number of visits was 8.4±1.12 (7-12) in the first year and 6.6±1.33 (4-12) in the second year. The mean number of injections was 5.8±1.6 (3-10) and 4.2±2.2 (0-9) in the first and second year, respectively. The mean BCVA was 59±15.8 letters at baseline by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. The mean BCVA at 3, 12, and 24mo was 70.3±15.9, 67.9±14.3 and 67.3±16.9 letters, respectively. Improvement in visual acuity for each of the visits from baseline was found to be statistically significant (P<0.01). Visual acuity in 9 eyes at month 3, 7 eyes at month 12, and 13 eyes at month 24 did not change. The mean central macular thickness (CMT) was 437.99±164.78 μm at baseline. The mean CMT was 348.05±138.47 μm, 349.27±139.79 μm, and 344.13±146.30 μm at months 3, 12, and 24, respectively. The decrease in CMT for each of the visits from baseline was found to be statistically significant (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Anatomical and functional achievement are obtained in our study, but the mean number of injections and visits are found to be lower than the findings reported in randomized controlled clinical trials in the literature. However, the mean number of injections and visits in our study are compatible with the findings reported in real-life experience studies in the literature.

    • Comparison of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness between myopia severity groups and controls

      2018, 11(2):274-278. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.16

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      Abstract:AIM: To compare the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured via optical coherence tomography (OCT) between different groups of myopia severity and controls. METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent a full ophthalmic examination, refraction, visual field analysis and A-scan biometry. Myopic patients were classified as low myopia (LM) [spherical equivalent (SE) from greater than -0.5 D, up to -3.0 D], moderate myopia (MM; SE greater than -3.0 D, up to -6.0 D) and high myopia (HM; SE greater than -6.0 D). The control group consisted of emmetropic (EM) patients (SE from +0.5 D to -0.5 D). A Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT machine was used to measure the peripapillary RNFL thickness of both eyes of each subject. The mean peripapillary RNFL thickness between groups was compared using both analysis of variance and analysis of covariance. RESULTS: A total of 403 eyes of 403 subjects were included in this study. The mean age was 31.48±10.23y. There were 180 (44.7%) eyes with EM, 124 (30.8%) with LM, 73 (18.1%) with MM and 26 (6.5%) with HM. All groups of myopia severity had a thinner average RNFL than the EM group, but after controlling for gender, age, and axial eye length, only the HM group differed significantly from the EM group (P=0.017). Likewise, the superior, inferior and nasal RNFL was thinner in all myopia groups compared to controls, but after controlling for confounders, only the inferior quadrant RNFL was significantly thinner in the HM group, when compared to the EM group (P=0.017). CONCLUSION: The average and inferior quadrant RNFL is thinner in highly myopic eyes compared to emmetropic eyes. Refractive status must be taken into consideration when interpreting the OCT of myopic patients, as RNFL thickness varies with the degree of myopia.

    • >Meta-Analysis
    • Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of combined surgery in the management of eyes with coexisting cataract and open angle glaucoma

      2018, 11(2):279-286. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.17

      Abstract (1993) HTML (56) PDF 432.11 K (521) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To conduct a systematic review and quantitative Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of combined surgery for the eyes with coexisting cataract and open angle glaucoma. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the related literature in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science databases, CNKI, CBM and Wan Fang databases, with no limitations on language or publication date. The primary efficacy estimate was identified by weighted mean difference of the percentage of intraocular pressure reduction (IOPR%) from baseline to end-point, the percentage of number of glaucoma medications reduction from pre- to post-operation, and the secondary efficacy evaluations were performed by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for complete and qualified success rate. Besides, ORs were applied to assess the tolerability of adverse incidents. Meta-analyses of fixed or random effect models were performed using RevMan software 5.2 to gather the consequences. Heterogeneity was evaluated by Chi2 test and the I2 measure. RESULTS: Ten studies enrolling 3108 patients were included. The combined consequences indicated that both glaucoma and combined cataract and glaucoma surgery significantly decreased IOP. For deep sclerectomy vs deep sclerectomy plus phacoemulsification and canaloplasty vs phaco-canaloplasty, the differences in IOPR% were not all statistically significant while trabeculotomy was detected to gain a quantitatively greater IOPR% compared with trabeculotomy plus phacoemulsification. Furthermore, there was no statistical significance in the complete and qualified success rate, and the rates of adverse incidents for trabeculotomy vs trabeculotomy plus phacoemulsification. CONCLUSION: Compared with trabeculotomy plus phacoemulsification, trabeculectomy alone is more effective in lowering IOP and the number of glaucoma medications, while the two surgeries can not demonstrate statistical differences in the complete success rate, qualified success rate, or incidence of adverse incidents.

    • Effects of lipid-lowering agents on diabetic retinopathy: a Meta-analysis and systematic review

      2018, 11(2):287-295. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.18

      Abstract (3365) HTML (59) PDF 2.67 M (601) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To clarify this controversy and to provide evidence for application of lipid lowering agents in treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: We searched the databases of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and abstracts from main annual meetings up to January 1, 2017. Google scholar and ClinicalTrials.gov were also searched for unpublished relevant studies. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that studied lipid-lowering agents in type 1 or type 2 diabetes in this Meta-analysis. The primary endpoint was the progression of DR, and the secondary endpoints included vision loss, development of diabetic macular edema (DME) and aggravation of hard exudates. The pooled odds ratios (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: After systemic and manual literature search by two independent investigators, we included 8 RCTs from 7 published articles with 13 454 participants in this Meta-analysis. The results revealed that lipid-lowering drugs were associated with reduced risk in DR progression [OR=0.77 (95%CI: 0.62, 0.96), P=0.02]. Lipid-lowering agents might have protective effect on DME compared to placebo, although the difference was not statistically significant [OR=0.60 (95%CI: 0.34, 1.08), P=0.09]. However, no significant differences in the worsening of vision acuity [OR=0.96 (95%CI: 0.81,1.14), P=0.64] and hard exudates [OR=0.50 (95%CI:0.15, 1.74), P=0.28] were found between the lipid-lowering drugs and the placebo groups. CONCLUSION: In DR patients, lipid-lowering agents show a protective effect on DR progression and might be associated with reduced risk in the development of DME. However, lipid-lowering agents have no effects on vision loss and hard exudates aggravation. Further clinical trials in larger scale are required to confirm the conclusion of this study and thus justify the use of intensive control lipids with anti-lipid agents at the early stages of DR.

    • Association between endogenous cortisol level and the risk of central serous chorioretinopathy: a Meta-analysis

      2018, 11(2):296-300. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.19

      Abstract (1221) HTML (55) PDF 486.13 K (468) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To assess the association between endogenous cortisol level and the risk of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). METHODS: Case-control studies were systematically searched on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for publishes between January 1990 and July 2017 to assess the association between endogenous cortisol level and CSC. The main endpoints were serum cortisol level at 8 a.m. and 24-hour urine 17-hydroxysteroids level. We assessed pooled data using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Of 86 identified studies, 5 were eligible included in our analysis. The 5 studies included a total of 315 participants, of whom 187 had CSC. Statistically significant association was observed between serum cortisol level (summary SMD=0.77, 95%CI=0.55-0.99), 24-hour urine 17-hydroxysteroids level (summary SMD=0.95, 95%CI=0.61-1.30), and the risk of CSC. CONCLUSION: Endogenous cortisol level is associated with an increased risk of CSC. Combined treatment targeting the serum cortisol level at 8 a.m. and 24-hour urine 17-hydroxysteroids level can be a potential preventive strategy for individuals who are at risk of CSC and therapeutic strategy for patients with CSC.

    • >Investigation
    • Gender differences in adolescent dry eye disease: a health problem in girls

      2018, 11(2):301-307. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.20

      Abstract (1956) HTML (56) PDF 796.18 K (494) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED) in adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, case-control study and outpatients aged 10 to 19y were recruited from six eye clinics of various practices and locations in Japan, and 253 non-DED subjects and 70 DED patients were enrolled. Participants were examined for DED-related signs. Patients were also interviewed to ascertain the presence or absence of six common DED-related symptoms: dryness, irritation, pain, eye fatigue, blurring, and photophobia. Main outcome measures were differences in signs and symptoms of dry eye disease between boys and girls. RESULTS: Of the 323 adolescents recruited, 70 (21.7%) were diagnosed with DED. Significant differences between the non-DED and DED groups were found for short tear break-up time (BUT; ≤5s; P=0.000) and superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK; staining score ≥3; P=0.000). Late adolescent girls reported fewer symptoms than late adolescent boys, although their DED-related signs were worse compared to other groups. The prevalence and severity of DED were similar in the Tokyo area compared with suburban and local areas but myopic errors were worse. CONCLUSION: We find that adolescents reported symptoms of DED similar to those found in adults, and the majority have short BUT-type DED. The prevalence and severity of DED in late adolescent girls is comparable with adults. Adolescents with DED are underserved and we believe that DED is a hidden but potentially serious health problem for this age group.

    • Diagnosis related group grouping study of senile cataract patients based on E-CHAID algorithm

      2018, 11(2):308-313. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.21

      Abstract (2533) HTML (56) PDF 331.68 K (520) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To figure out the contributed factors of the hospitalization expenses of senile cataract patients (HECP) and build up an area-specified senile cataract diagnosis related group (DRG) of Shanghai thereby formulating the reference range of HECP and providing scientific basis for the fair use and supervision of the health care insurance fund. METHODS: The data was collected from the first page of the medical records of 22 097 hospitalized patients from tertiary hospitals in Shanghai from 2010 to 2012 whose major diagnosis were senile cataract. Firstly, we analyzed the influence factors of HECP using univariate and multivariate analysis. DRG grouping was conducted according to the exhaustive Chi-squared automatic interaction detector (E-CHAID) model, using HECP as target variable. Finally we evaluated the grouping results using non-parametric test such as Kruskal-Wallis H test, RIV, CV, etc. RESULTS: The 6 DRGs were established as well as criterion of HECP, using age, sex, type of surgery and whether complications/comorbidities occurred as the key variables of classification node of senile cataract cases. CONCLUSION: The grouping of senile cataract cases based on E-CHAID algorithm is reasonable. And the criterion of HECP based on DRG can provide a feasible way of management in the fair use and supervision of medical insurance fund.

    • >Review
    • A systematic review of teleophthalmological studies in Europe

      2018, 11(2):314-325. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.22

      Abstract (2794) HTML (65) PDF 301.81 K (480) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:A systematic review of the recent literature regarding a series of ocular diseases involved in European telemedicine projects was performed based on the PubMed, Google Scholar and Springer databases in June 2017. Literature review returned 44 eligible studies; among them, emergency ophthalmology, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, age-related macular disease, cataract and retinopathy of prematurity. The majority of studies indicate teleophthalmology as a valid, reliable and cost-efficient method for care-provision in ophthalmology patients which delivers comparable outcomes to the traditional examination methods.

    • >Brief Report
    • Effect of Qingguang’an II on expressions of OX42 protein and IL-1β mRNA of retinal microglia cells of rats with chronic high intraocular pressure

      2018, 11(2):326-328. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.23

      Abstract (1173) HTML (56) PDF 338.89 K (431) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:The study investigated the effects of Qingguang’an II (a Chinese medicinal preparation) on expressions of OX42 protein and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA of retinal microglia cells of rats with chronic high intraocular pressure (IOP). SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, that were: A: blank group; B: model group; C: Qingguang’an II low dose group; D: Qingguang’an II medium dose group; E: Qingguang’an II high dose group; F: Yimaikang disket (a Chinese medicinal preparation) group. Experimental rats in B, C, D, E, F groups were established the model of chronic high IOP by cauterizing of superficial scleral vein. Tissues of eyes were obtained after intragastric administration for 2 and 4wk. At the time-point of 2wk, OX42 protein and IL-1β mRNA in group B were statistically expressed in higher level comparing with other groups (P<0.05). Moreover, at the time-point of 4wk, OX42 protein and IL-1β mRNA in groups C, D and E were statistically expressed in lower level comparing with group F (P<0.05). Besides, OX42 protein and IL-1β mRNA in groups C and D were statistically expressed in higher level comparing with group E (P<0.05). OX42 protein and IL-1β mRNA in groups C and D were expressed in similar level (P>0.05). The study indicated that, in the protection of optic nerve of rats with chronic high IOP, the high dose of Qingguang’an II at the time-point of 4wk was the better choice.

    • Mechanism of delayed conduction of fellow eyes in patients with optic neuritis

      2018, 11(2):329-332. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.24

      Abstract (1288) HTML (57) PDF 746.64 K (374) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:To test the hypothesis that latency delay in the fellow eyes of optic neuritis (ON) patients and to compensate for delayed transmission of visual information, latency change of multi-focal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) traces in fellow eyes of 15 ON patients were analyzed. Patients with low risk (LR) for developing multiple sclerosis (MS) were examined separately from MS patients to isolate effect of cortical plasticity from potential pathological changes in disseminated disease. The small increase in latency in fellow eyes of LR group was statistically not significant. In MS patients, the latency was significantly delayed (P<0.02). The magnitude of the latency change in the fellow eyes did not correlate with the severity of latency delay in the affected eyes (R2<0.02, P=0.3). The differences between ON patients with and without MS, reported here, suggest that the presence of disseminated disease plays critical role in latency delay of the fellow eye.

    • Long term outcomes for patients treated with half-fluence photodynamic therapy for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy: a case series

      2018, 11(2):333-336. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.25

      Abstract (1659) HTML (51) PDF 1.20 M (456) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:A case series was used to evaluate the efficacy of half-fluence photodynamic therapy (PDT) for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Patients were treated with standard-dose verteporfin and half-fluence PDT. Totally 13 eyes from 11 patients were included. The mean patient age was 52.0y. There was a mean reduction in central retinal thickness of 107.0 microns. Totally 7/13 eyes (53.8%) achieved resolution of subretinal fluid (SRF) on optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan after 1 treatment with PDT. Four eyes had further treatment with PDT; of these 1 eye achieved resolution of SRF. Seven of the 13 eyes (53.8%) achieved an improvement of more than 5 ETDRS letters. One patient experienced acute macula oedema 1d post PDT treatment. These results support the hypothesis that half-fluence PDT can have a positive effect in chronic CSCR for a gain in visual acuity and reduction in sub-retinal fluid. Acute macula oedema is a rare but potential adverse effect of half-fluence PDT.

    • >Letter to the Editor
    • A new application of capsulorhexis forceps in phacoemulsification: capsulorhexis forceps-assisted prechop technique

      2018, 11(2):337-339. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.26

      Abstract (1676) HTML (0) PDF 647.96 K (395) Comment (0) Favorites


    • Visual impairment with possible macular changes after a high dose of sildenafil in a healthy young woman

      2018, 11(2):340-342. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.27

      Abstract (1211) HTML (0) PDF 1.16 M (421) Comment (0) Favorites


    • Anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy in a patient with Coats disease

      2018, 11(2):343-345. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.02.28

      Abstract (1044) HTML (0) PDF 840.53 K (417) Comment (0) Favorites


Editors-in-Chief: Yan-Nian Hui and Peter Wiedemann

Established in April, 2008

ISSN 2222-3959 print

ISSN 2227-4898 online

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