• Volume 11,Issue 3,2018 Table of Contents
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    • >Basic Research
    • miR-211 regulates the antioxidant function of lens epithelial cells affected by age-related cataracts

      2018, 11(3):349-353. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.01

      Abstract (1831) HTML (158) PDF 462.01 K (551) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the effects and mechanism of miR-211 in mediating the antioxidant function of lens epithelial cells affected by age-related cataracts. METHODS: Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect miR-211 expression in the anterior lens capsules of healthy people, the anterior lens capsules of patients with age-related cataracts, and human epithelial cell line (SRA01/04) cells exposed to oxidative stress. A 2', 7'-dichloro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) probe was used to measure the levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human lens epithelial cells (hLECs) exposed to 400 μmol/L H2O2 for 1h. SRA01/04 cells were transfected with either miR-211 mimics, mimic controls, miR-211 inhibitors or inhibitor controls. After 72h, these cells were exposed to 400 μmol/L H2O2 for 1h, then p53 and Bax mRNA expression were measured using RT-qPCR. p53 and Bax protein expression were also measured by Western blotting analysis. Finally, cell viability was assessed using an MTS assay. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, expression of miR-211 in the anterior lens capsules of age-related cataract patients and in SRA01/04 cells exposed to oxidative stress was significantly increased (P<0.001). Levels of endogenous ROS were significantly elevated in hLECs exposed to oxidative stress (P<0.001). Compared to the mimic control group, the hLECs in the miR-211 mimic group expressed significantly higher levels of p53 and Bax mRNA and protein while cell viability was significantly reduced (P<0.001). Conversely, p53 and Bax mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced in the miR-211 inhibitor group as compared to the control group, while the cells in this group had much higher levels of cell viability (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: miR-211 is upregulated in the anterior lens capsules of age-related cataract patients. miR-211 decreased the antioxidative stress capacity of lens epithelial cells by upregulating p53 and Bax, while inhibiting cell proliferation and repair. This finding suggests that miR-211 may play a key role in the development of age-related cataracts.

    • Scleral ultrastructure and biomechanical changes in rabbits after negative lens application

      2018, 11(3):354-362. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.02

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      Abstract:AIM: To address the microstructure and biomechanical changes of the sclera of rabbits after negative lens application by spectacle frame apparatus. METHODS: Five New Zealand rabbits of seven weeks post-natal were treated with -8 D lens monocularly over the course of two weeks. Refractive errors and axial length (AXL) were measured at the 1st, 7th and 14th days of the induction period. Ultrastructure of sclera was determined with electron microscopy. Biomechanical properties were tested by an Instron 5565 universal testing machine. RESULTS: Lens-induced (LI) eyes elongated more rapidly compared with fellow eyes with AXL values of 15.56±0.14 and 15.21±0.14 mm (P<0.01). Fibril diameter was significantly smaller in the LI eyes compared with control ones in the inner, middle, and outer layers (inner layer, 63.533 vs 76.467 nm; middle layer, 92.647 vs 123.984 nm; outer layer, 86.999 vs 134.257 nm, P<0.01, respectively). In comparison with control eyes, macrophage-like cells that engulfed fibroblasts, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuoles in fibroblasts were observed in the inner and middle stroma in the LI eyes. Ultimate stress and Young’s modulus were lower in the LI eyes compared with those in the control eyes. CONCLUSION: Negative lens application alters eye growth, and results in axial elongation with changes in scleral ultrastructural and mechanical properties.

    • Protective effects of a composition of Chinese herbs-Gurigumu-13 on retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in DBA/2J glaucoma mouse model

      2018, 11(3):363-368. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.03

      Abstract (1773) HTML (158) PDF 1.27 M (592) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To explore the concrete mechanism of a Mongolian compound medicine-Gurigumu-13 (GRGM) for glaucoma treatment. METHODS: DBA/2J mice, as glaucoma models, were intragastric administrated with GRGM to study the effect of GRGM on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The loss of RGCs was evaluated with the number of RGCs and axons. The expression of the target protein of RGCs or mouse retinas was determined by Western blot. The relative content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was examined by ELISA assay. RESULTS: GRGM distinctly improved retina damage via increasing the number of neurons, RGCs and axons in a concentration dependent manner. Meanwhile, GRGM obviously decreased the high level of MDA and the expression of oxidative stress-related proteins in retinas of DBA/2J mice, but promoted the expression of antioxidant proteins. Additionally, GRGM also significantly inhibited the protein expression of Bip and Chop, which were markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSION: GRGM have obvious protective effects on RGCs in DBA/2J mice, and increase the number of RGCs and axons via inhibiting oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    • A recurrent G367R mutation in MYOC associated with juvenile open angle glaucoma in a large Chinese family

      2018, 11(3):369-374. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.04

      Abstract (1902) HTML (156) PDF 1.12 M (567) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To identify the mutations of MYOC, OPTN, CYP1B1 and WDR36 in a large Chinese family affected by juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG). METHODS: Of 114 members of one family were recruited in this study. Blood samples from twelve members of this pedigree were collected for further research. As a control, 100 unrelated subjects were recruited from the same hospital. The exon and flanking intron sequences of candidate genes were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing. RESULTS: The proband (III:10) was a seventy-three years old woman with binocular JOAG at the age of 31. A recurrent heterozygous mutation (c.1099G>A) of MYOC was identified in the three JOAG patients and another suspect. This transition was located in the first base pair of codon 367 (GGA>AGA) in exon 3 of MYOC and was predicted to be a missense substitution of glycine to arginine (p.G367R) in myocilin. Mutations in OPTN, CYP1B1 or WDR36 were not detected in this study. The G367R mutation was not present in unaffected family members or in 100 ethnically matched controls. Other variants of the coding regions of candidate genes were not detected in all participants. To date, this family was the largest to have been identified as carrying a certain MYOC mutation in China, further evidence of a founder effect for the G367R MYOC mutant was provided by our data. CONCLUSION: A MYOC c.1099G>A mutation in an autosomal dominant JOAG family is identified and the characteristic phenotypes among the patients are summarized. Genetic testing could be utilized in high-risk populations and be helpful not only for genetic counseling, but also for early diagnosis and treatment of affected patients or carriers of inherited JOAG.

    • Mechanism of retinal pericyte migration through Angiopoietin/Tie-2 signaling pathway on diabetic rats

      2018, 11(3):375-381. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.05

      Abstract (1919) HTML (149) PDF 2.46 M (561) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the mechanism of pericyte migration through Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2)/Tie-2 signaling pathway. METHODS: We divided the rats into 5 groups. Each diabetic rat model groups injected with Tie-2 inhibitor, ERK1/2 inhibitor, Akt/PKB inhibitor, and DMSO intravitreal. Retinal digest preparation was done to examine the retinal vasculature including pericyte: endothelial ratio, and morphology of pericyte migration. Tie-2, ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB phosporylation were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: There was a correlation between pericyte migration with increasing Ang-2 (P<0.05). Pericyte number reduced by 40% (1:2.4) after 5wk diabetes on diabetic rats. The pericyte: endothelial ratio on group with Tie-2 inhibitor were 1:1.8. The same result shows on group with Akt/PKB inhibition. ERK1/2 inhibitor group shows the best results of pericyte: endothelial ratio (1:1.7). Inhibition on Tie-2 receptor decreased the phosphorylation activity of Tie-2, ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB pathway. ERK1/2 inhibition also decreasing the phosphorylation of Tie-2 and Akt/PKB. But on Akt/PKB inhibition, the phosphorylation of Tie-2 and ERK1/2 were relative the same. CONCLUSION: Ang-2 has a role for pericyte migration on diabetic rats through Tie-2 receptor, ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB pathways. ERK1/2 is a dominant pathway based on the ability to supress another pathway activity and decreasing pericyte migration on diabetic rats.

    • Is Marcus Gunn jaw winking a primitive reflex? Rat neuroanatomy

      2018, 11(3):382-388. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.06

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      Abstract:AIM: To investigate a possible trigeminal proprioceptive-oculomotor neural pathway and explore possible synaptic connections between neurons in this pathway. Attempt to bring a new insight to mechanism of Marcus Gunn syndrome (MGS). METHODS: Anterograde and retrograde tract tracing was applied and combined with immunofluorescent stain in rats. After electrophysiological identifying mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Vme) neurons, intracellular injection of tracer was performed to trace axon trajectory. RESULTS: Following injections of anterograde tracers into the Vme, labeled terminals were observed ipsilateral in oculomotor and trochlear nuclei (III/IV), as well as in their premotor neurons in interstitial nucleus of Cajal and Darkschewitsch nucleus (INC/DN). Combining with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunofluorescent stain, it showed that Vme projecting terminals contact upon ChAT positive III/IV motoneurons under confocal microscope. By retrograde labeling premotor neurons of the III, it showed that Vme neuronal terminals contact with retrogradely labeled pre-oculomotor neurons in the INC/DN. Axons of intracellularly labeled Vme neurons that respond to electric stimuli of the masseter nerve traveled into the ipsilateral III. CONCLUSION: There may exist a trigeminal proprioceptive- oculomotor system neural circuit in the rat, which is probably related to vertical-torsional eye movements. Possible association of this pathway with MGS etiology was discussed.

    • >Clinical Research
    • Low concentration of sodium hyaluronate temporarily elevates the tear film lipid layer thickness in dry eye patients with lipid deficiency

      2018, 11(3):389-394. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.07

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      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the effects of different concentrations of artificial tears on lipid layer thickness (LLT) and blink rate (BR) in dry eye patients. METHODS: This study included 106 eyes of 58 patients with dry eye. The lipid deficiency type was defined as the LLT baseline <75 nm. The LLT and BR were measured at baseline and 1, 5 and 15min after the instillation of 0.1% or 0.3% sodium hyaluronate (SH) eye drops by using the LipiView ocular surface interferometer. RESULTS: In the lipid deficiency group, the LLT increased from baseline at 1min post instillation. The LLT after the instillation of 0.1% SH was significantly higher than that after the instillation of 0.3% SH (P<0.001). The LLT returned to baseline at 15min post instillation of 0.1% SH and at 5min post instillation of 0.3% SH. In the non-lipid deficiency group, the LLT decreased from baseline at 1min and returned to baseline at 5min for both treatments. The BRs were not significantly different at different time points for both treatments. CONCLUSION: SH eye drops induce a short-term increase in LLT of patients with lipid deficiency. A low concentration of artificial tears have a stronger effect than a high concentration of artificial tears on the increase in LLT. In comparison, SH eye drops induce a transient and slight decrease in LLT of patients without lipid deficiency. A low concentration of artificial tears might be better for patients with lipid deficiency.

    • Clinical outcome of combined conjunctival autograft transplantation and amniotic membrane transplantation in pterygium surgery

      2018, 11(3):395-400. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.08

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      Abstract:AIM: To compare long-term outcome of primary and recurrent pterygium surgery with three different techniques: combined conjunctival autograft and overlay amniotic membrane transplantation (CAT with AMT), conjunctival autograft transplantation (CAT) alone and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) alone. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 142 eyes of 142 pterygium patients (104 primary, 38 recurrent) who underwent CAT (group A), AMT (group B) or CAT with AMT (group C) respectively following surgical excision were reviewed and compared based on the recurrences and post-operative complications. RESULTS: The number of recurrence post-surgery were 17 (9 from primary, 8 from recurrent; the same description below), 18 (10, 8) and 2 (1, 1) in groups A, B, and C respectively; dry eyes were 22 (16, 6), 27 (18, 9) and 7 (3, 4); conjunctival inflammations were 30 (17, 13), 27 (16, 11) and 11 (6, 5). Patients in group C (either primary or recurrent or both) mainly showed significantly better results than those in group A or B (P<0.05) regarding above-mentioned clinical effects. CONCLUSION: Combined CAT and overly AMT have significantly lower rates of recurrence and postoperative complications for primary and recurrent pterygium surgery than CAT or AMT alone.

    • Human lens epithelial cell apoptosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery

      2018, 11(3):401-407. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.09

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate human lens epithelium cell apoptosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by femtosecond laser in femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery (FLACS). METHODS: Sixty cataract patients with N2 to N3 stage according to the LOCS III were enrolled in this study and divided into three groups randomly: FLACS1 group (cataract surgery by FLACS with LenSx), FLACS2 group (cataract surgery by FLACS with LensAR) and manual group (cataract surgery by phacoemulsification). Patients in two FLACS groups performed anterior capsulotomy by LenSx or LensAR laser system. Patients in the manual group were performed continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis (CCC) manually. The anterior capsules were fixed right after moved out of eye. Hematoxylin-eosine staining, immunofluorescence staining and real-time PCR were performed in order to observe human lens epithelium cells changes after cataract surgery. RESULTS: The capsule cutting edge was shown irregularity and roughness in two FLACS groups and smooth edge in manual capsulotomy by pathologic staining. Irregularities of the cell configuration with partly swollen and destroyed nuclei were observed in two FLACS groups. Femtosecond laser could induce a significantly higher cell apoptosis in human lens epithelium cell than manually performed CCC (P<0.05). Lens epithelium cells apoptosis were correlated with femtosecond laser duration according to Pearson correlation analysis. Decreased N-cadherin expression, alpha-SMA and FSP-1 level in two FLACS groups showed the inhibition of cell EMT. CONCLUSION: Femtosecond laser may affect the apoptosis and EMT of lens epithelium cells which are under the peeled central lens capsule.

    • Outcomes of transconjunctival sutureless 27-gauge vitrectomy for vitreoretinal diseases

      2018, 11(3):408-415. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.10

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy profile of 27-gauge (27G) pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for the treatment of various vitreoretinal diseases. METHODS: The clinical outcomes of 61 eyes (58 patients) with various vitreoretinal diseases following 27G PPV were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Surgical indications included rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (n=24), full-thickness macular hole (n=12), diabetic retinopathy (n=11), vitreous hemorrhage (n=6), Eales disease (n=4), pathological myopia-related vitreous floater (n=2), and macular epiretinal membrane (n=2). The mean follow-up was 166.4±61.3d (range 98-339d). The mean logMAR best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved from 1.7±1.1 [0.02 decimal visual acuity (VA) equivalent] preoperatively to 1.2±1.0 (0.06 decimal VA equivalent) at the last postoperative visit (P<0.001). The mean operative time was 49.9min. With the exception of complicated cataract in one eye, no intraoperative complications were encountered. No case required conversion to conventional 20-, 23- or 25G instrumentation in all surgical maneuvers except for silicone oil infusion, which required a 25G oil injection syringe. Postoperative complications included transient ocular hypertension, vitreous hemorrhage, persistent intraocular pressure elevation, subconjunctival oil leakage, and recurrent retinal detachment. No cases of hypotony, endophthalmitis, and sclerotomy-related tears were observed. CONCLUSION: The current results suggest that 27G PPV system is a safe and effective treatment for various vitreoretinal diseases. When learning to perform 27G PPV, surgeons may encounter a learning curve and should gradually expand surgical indications from easy to pathologically complicated cases.

    • Long-term results of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in Egyptian population

      2018, 11(3):416-421. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.11

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the long-term results and complications of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation in a cohort of Egyptian patients. METHODS: A retrospective study of 124 eyes of 99 patients with refractory glaucoma who underwent AGV implantation and had a minimum follow-up of 5y was performed. All patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement before surgery and at 1d, weekly for the 1st month, 3, 6mo, and 1y after surgery and yearly afterward for 5y. IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry and/or Tono-Pen. Complications and the number of anti-glaucoma medications needed were recorded. Success was defined as IOP less than 21 mm Hg with or without anti-glaucoma medication and without additional glaucoma surgery. RESULTS: Mean age was 23.1±19.9y. All eyes had at least one prior glaucoma surgery. IOP was reduced from a mean of 37.2±6.8 to 19.2±5.2 mm Hg after 5y follow-up with a reduced number of medications from 2.64±0.59 to 1.81±0.4. Complete and qualified success rates were 31.5% and 46.0% respectively at the end of follow-up. The most common complications were encapsulated cyst formation in 51 eyes (41.1%), complicated cataract in 9 eyes (7.25%), recessed tube in 8 eyes (6.45%), tube exposure in 6 eyes (4.8%) and corneal touch in 6 eyes (4.8%). Other complications included extruded AGV, endophthalmitis and persistent hypotony. Each of them was recorded in only 2 eyes (1.6%). CONCLUSION: Although refractory glaucoma is a difficult problem to manage, AGV is effective and relatively safe procedure in treating refractory glaucoma in Egyptian patients with long-term follow-up. Encapsulated cyst formation was the most common complication, which limits successful IOP control after AGV implantation. However, effective complications management can improve the rate of success.

    • Automatic localization of macular area based on structure label transfer

      2018, 11(3):422-428. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.12

      Abstract (1189) HTML (148) PDF 1.33 M (548) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To explore feasibility and practicability of macula localization independent of macular morphological features. METHODS: A novel method was proposed to identify macula in fundus images by using structure label transfer. Its main idea was to match a processed image with the candidate images with known structures, and then transfer the structure label representing the macular to the processed image as a result of macula localization. In this way, macula localization couldn’t be influenced by lesion or other interference any more. RESULTS: The average success rate in four datasets was 98.18%. For accuracy, the average error distance in four datasets was 0.151 optic disc diameter (ODD). Even for severe lesion images, the proposed method can still maintain high success rate and high accuracy, e.g., 95.65% and 0.124 ODD in the case of STARE dataset, respectively, which indicated that the proposed method was highly robust and stable in the complicated situations. CONCLUSION: The proposed method can avoid the interference of lesion to macular morphological features in macula localization, and can locate macula with high accuracy and robustness, verifying its feasibility.

    • Intravitreal anti-VEGF agents, oral glucocorticoids, and laser photocoagulation combination therapy for macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion: preliminary report

      2018, 11(3):429-437. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.13

      Abstract (1255) HTML (169) PDF 1.39 M (590) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, oral glucocorticoid, and laser photocoagulation therapy for macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). METHODS: This study included 16 eyes of 16 patients with RVO-associated ME. Patients were initially treated with oral prednisone and an intravitreal anti-VEGF agent. Two weeks later, patients underwent standard laser photocoagulation. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), and retinal vessel oxygenation were examined over 12mo. RESULTS: Patients received 1.43±0.81 anti-VEGF injections. Mean baseline and 12-month logMAR BCVA were 0.96±0.51 (20/178) and 0.31±0.88 (20/40), respectively, in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) (P<0.00), and 1.02±0.45 (20/209) and 0.60±0.49 (20/80), respectively, in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) (P<0.00). At 12mo, CRT had significantly decreased in eyes with CRVO (P<0.00) and BRVO (P<0.00). Venous oxygen saturation had significantly increased in eyes with CRVO (P<0.00) and BRVO (P<0.00). No examined parameters were significantly different between the 2 RVO groups. No serious adverse effects occurred. CONCLUSION: Anti-VEGF, glucocorticoid, and photocoagulation combination therapy improves visual outcome, prolongs therapeutic effect, and reduces the number of intravitreal injections in eyes with RVO-associated ME.

    • The optic nerve head perfusion and its correlation with the macular blood perfusion in unilateral idiopathic macular hole: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

      2018, 11(3):438-444. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.14

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      Abstract:AIM: To compare the optic nerve head (ONH) perfusion in both eyes of unilateral idiopathic macular hole (IMH) with normal control group by using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and investigate its correlationship with the macular blood perfusion. METHODS: We performed a prospective and cross-sectional study that included 19 patients with full-thickness unilateral IMH and 24 age- and sex-matched controls. All participants received OCTA test. The ONH perfusion was evaluated by the regions of peripapillary and whole en face (the sum of peripapillary and optic disc). The potential correlationship between ONH and parafovea were implied. All the data were performed using the nonparametric test. RESULTS: The mean values of ONH presented that normal control >IMH >unaffected eyes. A statistical variation was found between three groups in the region of temporal (P=0.007). Vessel density notablely decreased on the layers of superficial, deep and choroid of parafovea region in IMH group. The correlative coefficients showed that respectively whole en face and deep retina: r=0.528, peripapillary and deep retina: r=0.525, whole en face and choriocapillaries: r=0.569, peripapillary and choriocapillaries: r=0.504. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrate a reduced ONH vessel density in both eyes of IMH patients and the vessel density of ONH in IMH eyes are positively correlated with both the retina capillary and choriocapillary in parafoveal. The reduction of vessel densities may indicate the hypoperfusion in IMH eyes.

    • Safety and efficacy of posterior sub-Tenon’s carboplatin injection versus intravitreal melphalan therapy in the management of retinoblastoma with secondary vitreous seeds

      2018, 11(3):445-455. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.15

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of posterior sub-Tenon’s carboplatin injection compared to intravitreal melphalan injection in the management of retinoblastoma (RB) with secondary vitreous seeds. The outcome measures were vitreous seeds regression, need for other treatment modalities to achieve ocular salvage and treatment side effects. METHODS: A prospective interventional comparative nonrandomized study included RB eyes developed secondary vitreous seeds during the period of follow up. They subdivided into two groups: study group I where posterior sub-Tenon’s carboplatin (20 mg/2 mL) was injected and study group II where intravitreal melphalan (20 μg /0.1 mL) was injected. The injections repeated every 2-4wk. RESULTS: Thirty-three eyes were included in the study. Seventeen eyes (16 patients) in study group I and 16 eyes (16 patients) in study group II. Ten eyes (30.3%) were completely salvaged following local chemotherapies. Ocular salvage was 23.5% following posterior sub-Tenon’s carboplatin injection versus 37.5% following intravitreal melphalan raised to 47.1% and 75% with addition of external beam radiotherapy (EBR) with no statistically significant difference between the study groups (P=0.16). A statistically significant correlation was found between ocular salvage rate and type of vitreous seeds either dust, spheres and clouds (r=0.42, P=0.015) and eyes harbor new solid tumor growth (r=0.35, P=0.045). The mean and median follow up periods following local chemotherapy injections were 2.0y in the study group I and 2.37y in the study group II. Few complications were reported: periorbital edema in all eyes and ocular motility disturbances in 13 eyes (76.5%) following posterior sub-Tenon’s carboplatin injection. Vitreous hemorrhage developed in 2 eyes (12.5%) and localized retinopathy in 5 eyes (31.25%) following intravitreal melphalan. CONCLUSION: Local chemotherapy for treatment of RB with secondary vitreous seeds is safe and can salvage 30.3% of eyes without EBR. There is a superiority of intravitreal melphalan in ocular salvage however, no statistically significant difference between both groups.

    • Cap morphology after small-incision lenticule extraction and its effects on intraocular scattering

      2018, 11(3):456-461. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.16

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      Abstract:AIM: To investigate cap morphology after small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and its effects on intraocular scattering. METHODS: Sixty-five eyes of 33 patients undergoing SMILE were enrolled. In addition to regular evaluation, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography was used to investigate cap thickness at 1d, 1wk, 1 and 3mo postoperatively. The optical quality including modulation transfer function cutoff frequency, Strehl ratio, Optical Quality Analysis System (OQAS) values, and objective scattering index (OSI), were evaluated using OQASTM. RESULTS: Cap thickness decreased from 1d to 1wk (P<0.001), but remained higher than intended thickness of 120 μm after 3mo (P<0.001). Cap thickness in central area was thinner than that of in the paracentral and peripheral areas (P<0.0001). Total number of microdistortions decreased from 1d to 3mo (P<0.0001). Pearson analysis revealed a weak correlation between OSI and standard deviation of cap thickness at 1d and 1mo, as well as between range of cap thickness and OSI at 1mo. No correlation was found between microdistortion and OSI, but a negative correlation existed between microdistortion and range at 1d and 1moafter surgery. CONCLUSION: The corneal cap tends to be more accurate and regular with time lapse. Better cap morphology tends to contribute less intraocular scattering in the eyes undergoing SMILE.

    • Visual quality assessment after presbyopic laser in-situ keratomileusis

      2018, 11(3):462-469. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.17

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      Abstract:AIM: To assess visual quality after presbyopia correction using an aspheric ablation profile and a micro-monovision protocol. METHODS: This is a retrospective interventional study. Fifty-four eyes of 27 patients (mean age, 50.2±7.5y) who underwent presbyopia correction with an aspheric micro-monovision protocol were enrolled. The values of modulation transfer function (MTF) cutoff frequency, Strehl ratio, objective scattering index (OSI) and accommodation range were quantitatively assessed using the HD analyzer. Preoperative and postoperative contrast sensitivity (CS) at far (2.5 m) and near (40 cm) distance and higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were analyzed. Subjective visual satisfaction was evaluated by self-reported questionnaire regarding optical visual symptoms. RESULTS: One year after presbyopia correction, no significant differences were found in the MTF cutoff frequency, Strehl ratio and OSI, however, the HD analyzer accommodation range significantly differed postoperatively (P=0.004). Postoperative CS at 12 and 18 cpd at near showed statistically significant improvement (P=0.020 and 0.008, respectively). Visual performance by self-reported questionnaire revealed satisfactory results in terms of subjective visual quality improvement. CONCLUSION: Objective optical quality parameters show good visual outcomes. Subjective visual quality assessed by self-reported questionnaire in the presbyopia correction group show satisfactory results.

    • Three-year results of small incision lenticule extraction and wavefront-guided femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis for correction of high myopia and myopic astigmatism

      2018, 11(3):470-477. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.18

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      Abstract:AIM: To compare and calculate the 3-year refractive results, higher-order aberrations (HOAs), contrast sensitivity (CS) and dry eye parameters after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and wavefront-guided femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) for correction of high myopia and myopic astigmatism. METHODS: In this prospective, non-randomized comparative study, 78 eyes with spherical equivalent (SE) of -8.11±1.09 diopters (D) received a SMILE surgery, and 65 eyes with SE of -8.05±1.12 D received a wavefront-guided FS-LASIK surgery with the VisuMax femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) for flap cutting. Visual acuity, manifest refraction, CS, HOAs, ocular surface disease index (OSDI) and tear break-up time (TBUT) were evaluated during a 3-year follow-up. RESULTS: The difference of uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) postoperatively was achieved at 1mo and at 3mo, whereas the difference of the mean UDVA between two groups at 3y were not statistically significant (t=-1.59, P=0.13). The postoperative change of SE was 0.89 D in the FS-LASIK group (t=5.76, P=0.00), and 0.14 D in the SMILE group (t=0.54, P=0.59) from 1mo to 3y after surgery. At 3-year postoperatively, both HOAs and spherical aberrations in the SMILE group were obviously less than those in the FS-LASIK group (P=0.00), but the coma root mean square (RMS) was higher in the SMILE group (0.59±0.26) than in the FS-LASIK group (0.29±0.14, P=0.00). The mesopic CS values between two groups were not statistically significant at 3y postoperatively. Compared with the FS-LASIK group, lower OSDI scores and longer TBUT values were found in the SMILE group at 1mo and 3mo postoperatively. With regard to safety, no eye lost any line of CDVA in both groups at 3y after surgery. CONCLUSION: Both SMILE and wavefront-guided FS-LASIK procedures provide good visual outcomes. Both procedures are effective and safe, but SMILE surgery achieve more stable long-term refractive outcome and better control of early postoperative dry eye as compared to FS-LASIK.

    • The relationship between abduction deficit and reoperation among patients with infantile esotropia

      2018, 11(3):478-483. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.19

      Abstract (1609) HTML (160) PDF 700.21 K (565) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To determine the relationship between abduction deficit and reoperation among patients with infantile esotropia (IET). METHODS: The records of 216 patients (432 eyes) with IET who underwent surgery, from 2010 to 2015 were studied. Patients with IET whose deviation appeared before 6mo of age and had stable preoperative deviation in two examinations with at least 2wk apart and a minimum 3mo postoperative follow up were included. Cases with early onset accommodative esotropia, congenital cataract, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), manifest nystagmus, fundus lesions, neurologic and ophthalmic anomalies, 6th nerve palsy and Duane’s syndrome were excluded. Preoperative abduction deficit was considered from -1 to -3 grading scale. Three months after surgery, children were classified into no-need reoperation [deviation≤15 prism diopters (PD)], and need-reoperation groups (deviation>15 PD). RESULTS: In this retrospective study, 117 female and 99 male patients with the mean surgical age of 4.7±6.4y were included. Reoperation rate was 33.3% and 16.0% in IET patients with and without abduction deficit, respectively in patients who had a history of late surgery. Abduction deficit increased the odds of reoperation by 82% [OR=1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.05 to 3.19, P=0.003] in patients who had a history of late surgery (>2 years old, P=0.021). Abduction deficit was improved significantly after operation (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Based on our results, abduction deficit can be considered as a risk factor of reoperation in IET patients who are operated at the age of more than 2y.

    • >Meta-Analysis
    • Comparison of visual outcomes with implantation of trifocal versus bifocal intraocular lens after phacoemulsification: a Meta-analysis

      2018, 11(3):484-492. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.20

      Abstract (2642) HTML (146) PDF 2.19 M (591) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To compare a trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) and a bifocal IOL implantation in improving visual function after cataract surgery. METHODS: Eligible literatures were systematically searched through EMBASE and PubMed databases. The inclusion criteria were prospective comparative clinical trials on cataract surgery comparing trifocal IOL with bifocal IOL implantation that assessed visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and subjective vision quality. The effects were computed as standardized mean differences and pooled using fixed-effect or random-effect models. RESULTS: Four prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and five cohorts provided data were included by a systematic review, comprising 265 eyes implanted with trifocal IOLs and 264 eyes implanted with bifocal IOLs. Monocular distance visual acuity (VA) showed a statistically significant but small difference that favored trifocal IOLs (MD=-0.06; 95%CI, -0.10 to -0.02; Z=2.90, P=0.004 for uncorrected distance VA, and MD= -0.02; 95%CI, -0.03 to -0.00; Z=2.02, P=0.04 for corrected distance VA), but the data did not suggest that the effect of trifocal IOL implantation would clinically outperform bifocal IOL implantation. There was no significant difference in monocular near VA (MD=-0.01; 95%CI, -0.07 to 0.04; Z=0.42, P=0.68 for distance-corrected near VA, and MD=-0.01; 95%CI, -0.06 to 0.03; Z=0.55, P=0.58 for corrected near VA) or refraction between two groups. Contrast sensitivity and subjective visual quality had no conclusive results. CONCLUSION: All results indicate that trifocal IOL and bifocal IOL had similar levels of monocular distance and near VA.

    • >Investigation
    • The relationship between insulin resistance/β-cell dysfunction and diabetic retinopathy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Desheng Diabetic Eye Study

      2018, 11(3):493-500. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.21

      Abstract (1856) HTML (155) PDF 335.58 K (505) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the relationship between insulin resistance (IR)/β-cell dysfunction and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to explore further whether there were differences in the relationship among diabetic patients with higher and lower body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Cross-sectional study. A total of 1466 subjects with T2DM were recruited in a local Desheng Community of urban Beijing from November 2009 to June 2012 for the cohort of Beijing Desheng Diabetic Eye Study. Standardized evaluation was carried out for each participant, including questionnaire, ocular and anthropometric examinations, and laboratory tests. Seven fields 30° color fundus photographs were used for DR grading according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocols. Homeostatis Model Assessment (HOMA) method was employed for IR and β-cell function assessment. RESULTS: After excluding those participants who were treated with insulin (n=352) or had missing data of fasting insulin (n=96), and further excluding those with poor quality of retinal photographs (n=10), a total of 1008 subjects were included for the final analysis, 406 (40.3%) were men and 602 (59.7%) were women, age ranging from 34 to 86 (64.87±8.28)y. Any DR (levels 14 and above) was present in 278 (27.6%) subjects. After adjusting for possible covariates, the presence of any DR did not correlate with HOMA IR [odds ratio (OR) 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-2.61, P=0.14] or HOMA β-cell (OR 0.71, 95%CI 0.40-1.26, P=0.25). After stratification by BMI, the presence of any DR was associated positively with HOMA IR (OR 2.46, 95%CI: 1.18-5.12, P=0.016), and negatively with HOMA β-cell (OR 0.40, 95%CI: 0.19-0.87, P=0.021) in the group of patients with higher BMI (≥25 kg/m2). In the group of patients with lower BMI (<25 kg/m2), the presence of any DR was not associated with HOMA IR (OR 1.00, 95%CI: 0.43-2.33, P=1.00) or HOMA β-cell (OR 1.41, 95%CI: 0.60-3.32, P=0.43). CONCLUSION: The data suggest that higher IR and lower β-cell function are associated with the presence of DR in the subgroup of diabetic patients with higher BMI. However, this association is not statistically significant in diabetic patients with lower BMI.

    • Symptomatic accommodative and binocular dysfunctions from the use of flat-panel displays

      2018, 11(3):501-505. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.22

      Abstract (1729) HTML (158) PDF 326.05 K (548) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To determine the presence of symptomatic accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions (ANSBD) in a non-presbyopic population of video display unit (VDU) users with flat-panel displays. METHODS: One hundred and one VDU users, aged between 20 to 34y, initially participated in the study. This study excluded contact-lens wearers and subjects who had undergone refractive surgery or had any systemic or ocular disease. First, subjects were asked about the type and nature of eye symptoms they experienced during VDU use. Then, a thorough eye examination excluded those subjects with a significant uncorrected refractive error or other problem, such as ocular motility disorders, vertical deviation, strabismus and eye diseases. Finally, the remaining participants underwent an exhaustive assessment of their accommodative and binocular vision status. RESULTS: Eighty-nine VDU users (46 females and 43 males) were included in this study. They used flat-panel displays for an average of 5±1.9h a day. Twenty subjects presented ANSBD (22.5%). Convergence excess was the most frequent non-strabismic binocular dysfunction (9 subjects), followed by fusional vergence dysfunction (3 subjects) and convergence insufficiency (2 subjects). Within the accommodative dysfunctions, accommodative excess was the most common (4 subjects), followed by accommodative insufficiency (2 subjects). Moderate to severe eye symptoms were found in 13 subjects with ANSBD. CONCLUSION: Significant eye symptoms in VDU users with accommodative and/or non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions often occur and should not be underestimated; therefore, an appropriate evaluation of accommodative and binocular vision status is more important for this population.

    • >Review
    • Endoscopy-assisted vitrectomy in the anterior vitreous

      2018, 11(3):506-511. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.23

      Abstract (3495) HTML (173) PDF 743.64 K (668) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Endoscopy-assisted ocular surgery is a relatively old technique that is increasingly being recognized for its application in cases of vitreoretinal disease. This technique is especially useful when both the vitreous and retina are difficult to access because of media opacity, a small pupil, or a microcornea. In this context, the anterior vitreous is often difficult to dissect because of its complex pathological changes. This article reviews the common anatomical features and pathologies that are observed in the anterior vitreous, as well as the applications and indications of endoscopy-assisted vitrectomy in the anterior vitreous.

    • >Brief Report
    • Lamellar keratoplasty with corneoscleral graft for limbal dermoids

      2018, 11(3):512-515. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.24

      Abstract (1634) HTML (150) PDF 658.71 K (468) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:To assess the postoperative outcomes of limbal dermoid excision with corneoscleral graft transplantation. The charts of 8 consecutive patients (mean age: 13.0y) who had undergone limbal dermoid excision with lamellar corneoscleral graft transplantation by a single surgeon were retrospectively reviewed. Mean dermoid size was 7.75 mm (6.0-12.0 mm). Mean visual acuities (in logMAR units) before and after surgery were 1.8 and 1.7, respectively (P=0.29). Spherical equivalents were 1.3 diopter (D) before surgery and 0.7 D after surgery (P=0.40). The mean astigmatism measurements before and after surgery were 2.4 D and 1.5 D, respectively (P=0.17). Vector analysis revealed a mild change in astigmatism with a mean “d” of 3.2 (0.56-6.89). No intra- or post-operative complications occurred. Lamellar keratoplasty for limbal dermoids is safe and offers good cosmesis and tectonic stability. A significant decrease in the amount of astigmatism is not expected following surgery.

    • A comparison of surgical efficacy between a 1.8-mm microincision and 3.2-mm and 5.5-mm incisions for phacoemulsification

      2018, 11(3):516-519. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.25

      Abstract (2846) HTML (153) PDF 305.57 K (522) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:Phacoemulsification is a commonly used surgical method in cataract surgery. This paper observes and compares the surgical efficacy of three incisions of different length for phacoemulsification to identify the optimal method for cataract surgery. Ninety patients were enrolled in the present study and divided into three groups. The 1.8-mm group received Bausch & Lomb MI60 foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation (n=30), 3.2-mm group received Bausch & Lomb Akreos AO foldable lens implantation (n=30), and 5.5-mm group received Alcon TYPE 05 rigid IOL implantation (n=30). Visual acuity, Oculyzer-based anterior segment analysis, and corneal endothelial cell count before surgery, and 3, 7, 30, and 90d after surgery were recorded and compared. Pseudophakic accommodation three days, one week, one month, and three months after surgery was determined. Intraoperative ultrasound time and ultrasonic energy were recorded. It was finally concluded that for phacoemulsification with the same phaco tip, a 1.8-mm microincision can lead to quicker recovery of visual acuity, more stable astigmatism, and higher pseudophakic accommodation than conventional incision.

    • Toxocara optic neuropathy: clinical features and ocular findings

      2018, 11(3):520-523. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.26

      Abstract (1420) HTML (155) PDF 508.53 K (559) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:We evaluated thirteen eyes of twelve patients diagnosed clinically and serologically with Toxocara optic neuropathy. Eleven patients had unilateral involvement and one patient had bilateral optic neuropathy. Eight patients (66.7%) had a possible infection source to Toxocara. Six patients (50%) had painless acute optic neuropathy. Ten eyes had asymmetric, sectorial optic disc edema with peripapillary infiltration and three eyes had diffuse optic disc edema. Eosinophilia was noted in five patients (41.7%) and optic nerve enhancement was observed in eight of eleven eyes (72.7%) with available orbit magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Mean visual acuity significantly improved following treatment [mean logarithmic of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) 0.94±0.56 at baseline and 0.47±0.59 at the final (P=0.02)]. Asymmetric optic disc edema with a peripapillary lesion and a history of raw meat ingestion were important clues for diagnosing Toxocara optic neuropathy. Additionally, Toxocara IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test and evaluating eosinophil may be helpful for diagnosis.

    • >Letter to the Editor
    • Late onset acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome-challenges on the way

      2018, 11(3):524-527. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.27

      Abstract (1094) HTML (0) PDF 811.82 K (491) Comment (0) Favorites


    • Choroidal vascular occlusion in a young male patient with sickle cell trait

      2018, 11(3):528-532. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.28

      Abstract (1678) HTML (0) PDF 1.88 M (553) Comment (0) Favorites


    • Extracting intraocular foreign body at or near the ciliary body with scleral indentation in direct visualization

      2018, 11(3):533-535. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.03.29

      Abstract (1779) HTML (0) PDF 746.90 K (497) Comment (0) Favorites


Editors-in-Chief: Yan-Nian Hui and Peter Wiedemann

Established in April, 2008

ISSN 2222-3959 print

ISSN 2227-4898 online

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