Editors-in-Chief: Yan-Nian Hui and Peter Wiedemann
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2019, 12(4):529-535. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.01
Abstract:AIM: To identify the pathogenic genes in pterygium. METHODS: We obtained mRNA expression profiles from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO) to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between pterygium tissues and normal conjunctiva tissues. The Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and transcription factors (TFs)-target gene regulatory network was performed to understand the function of DEGs. The expression of selected DEGs were validated by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: A total of 557 DEGs were identified between pterygium and normal individual. In PPI network, several genes were with high degrees such as FN1, KPNB1, DDB1, NF2 and BUB3. SSH1, PRSS23, LRP5L, MEOX1, RBM14, ABCA1, JOSD1, KRT6A and UPK1B were the most downstream genes regulated by TFs. qRT-PCR results showed that FN1, PRSS23, ABCA1, KRT6A, ECT2 and SPARC were significantly up-regulated in pterygium and MEOX1 and MMP3 were also up-regulated with no significance, which was consistent with the our integrated analysis. CONCLUSION: The deregulated genes might be involved in the pathology of pterygium and could be used as treatment targets for pterygium.
2019, 12(4):536-541. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.02
Abstract:AIM: To study the therapeutic effect of rapamycin liposome eyedrops on fungal keratitis (FK) and its effect on the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). METHODS: This study adopted the thin film dispersion method to prepare rapamycin liposomes eyedrops, as well as used the orthogonal design to analyze and study main influencing factors that affected the quality of liposomes. Totally 96 healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group (A), FK blank control group (B), FK blank liposomes control group (C), and 30 FK rapamycin liposome treatment group (D). Groups B, C, and D were first prepared as FK animal models. The corneal response was recorded in details on day 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 after modeling. Six rats were obtained and immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression of MCP-1 protein and mRNA, respectively. RESULTS: The severity of corneal lesions in the rapamycin treatment group was reduced, and the clinical score of the slit lamp examination was lower than that of Groups B and C (P<0.01). The expression of MCP-1 in rapamycin treatment group was significantly inhibited, comparing to that of groups B and C (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Liposome is a good drug carrier for rapamycin. Rapamycin has a good therapeutic effect on FK. It can reduce FK fungal burden and significantly inhibit the expression of MCP-1 protein and mRNA.
2019, 12(4):542-548. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.03
Abstract:AIM: To determine the progression of parameters from optical coherence tomography (OCT) in chronic elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) monkeys. METHODS: A chronic elevated IOP model of rhesus monkeys was induced by laser photocoagulation. Representative OCT parameters, including the average and four-quadrant retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and parameters from optic nerve head (ONH) analysis were collected before and after laser treatments biweekly for up to 28wk. The performance of each parameter for early progression detection was analyzed. The progressive trends toward elevated IOP were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model. RESULTS: There were 10 successfully maintained high IOP eyes in 7 monkeys. The follow-up time was 24±5.37wk. With cumulative IOP elevation, the cup area, rim area and C/D area ratio were statistically significantly changed as early as 2wk after elevated IOP induction (P<0.05). The quadrant RNFL thickness changed at 6wk after high IOP induction, and the superior and inferior RNFL thicknesses exhibited more obvious reductions than other quadrants. The average RNFL thickness was the last one to show a significant decrease at 8wk. CONCLUSION: The parameters of ONH are most sensitive to elevated IOP in a primate glaucomatous model. These findings suggest that we should focus on those parameters instead of RNFL thickness in patients with elevated IOP, as they might present with earlier glaucomatous changes.
2019, 12(4):549-556. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.04
Abstract:AIM: To investigate the expression of interleukin (IL)-33 in the cornea and human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) exposed to Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus), and to determine the function of IL-33/ST2/p38 signaling pathway in the immune response of corneal epithelial cells to A. fumigatus infection. METHODS: The mRNA and protein expression of IL-33 in HCECs and mice corneas were examined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis, respectively. IL-33 expression was also detected in cornea samples from healthy donors and patients with fungal keratitis with immunohistochemistry. The cultured HCECs were treated with inactive A. fumigatus hyphae at various concentrations with or without recombinant human IL-33 protein, soluble recombinant ST2 protein, specific ST2 neutralizing antibody, or the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 inhibitor SB203580 for evaluation of the expression and activation of IL-33/ST2/p38 signaling in the regulation of proinflammatory cytokines. The production levels of IL-6 and IL-1β were determined by qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proliferation of HCECs was determined by a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay and cell count. RESULTS: IL-33 expression levels increased in the corneal tissues of patients with fungal keratitis and in mice corneas of experimental A. fumigatus infection, as well as in HCECs with infection of A. fumigatus. A. fumigatus strongly stimulated HCECs-generated proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6 and IL-1β) production at both the mRNA and protein levels. This production of pro-inflammatory mediators stimulated by A. fumigatus was further stimulated by IL-33 and was prevented by soluble ST2 protein or ST2 neutralizing antibody. Moreover, IL-33 naturally promoted the p38 phosphorylation induced by A. fumigatus, which was suppressed by soluble ST2 protein. The MAPK p38 inhibitor SB203580 also inhibited the A. fumigatus-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. IL-33 administration for 48h and 72h promoted the proliferation of HCECs, which was attenuated by treatment with soluble recombinant human ST2 protein. CONCLUSION: A. fumigatus elevates IL-33 expression in human and mice corneas and HCECs. Thus, IL-33/ST2/p38 signaling may play an important role in amplifying the immune response of corneal epithelial cells to A. fumigatus infection. Besides, IL-33 promotes the cell proliferation of HCECs via its receptor ST2. These findings suggest a novel autocrine mechanism of amplification of the fungal-induced inflammatory response in the corneal epithelium, highlighting a potential therapeutic target for fungal keratitis.
2019, 12(4):557-562. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.05
Abstract:AIM: To investigate the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) expression by autophagy in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells on exposure to hypoxia. METHODS: ARPE-19, an RPE cell line, was treated as following: the control group was kept in a normoxic incubator; the hypoxia group was incubated in a hypoxic incubator with 1% O2/5% CO2/94% N2 for 24h; the hypoxia + 3-methyladenine (3-MA) group was pretreated with 10 mmol/L 3-MA for 1h and then in the hypoxic incubator for 24h; and the hypoxia + chloroquine (CQ) group was pretreated with 50 μmol/L CQ for 1h and then in the hypoxic incubator for 24h. The morphology and ultrastructure of the cells was observed by an inverted microscope or a transmission electronic microscope (TEM). Western blot was performed to assay the expression of autophagy-associated markers, including microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 B (LC3B), Beclin-1, Atg5 and p62. The concentration of VEGF and PEDF in the culture supernatant was determined by ELISA, and the ratio of VEGF/PEDF was calculated. RESULTS: There were no obvious differences in cell morphology among different groups and autolysosomes could be observed in the cytoplasm in all groups. Compared to the control cells, the LC3B-II/I ratio and levels of Beclin-1 and Atg5 were significantly increased and p62 level was significantly decreased in the hypoxia group. With the increase of VEGF and decrease of PEDF concentration, the VEGF/PEDF ratio was significantly increased in the hypoxia group compared to the control cells. The LC3B-II/I ratio was significantly reduced by 3-MA treatment and increased by CQ treatment. The expressions of Beclin-1 and Atg5 were significantly reduced by 3-MA or CQ treatment, while expression of p62 was increased in the 3-MA or CQ treated cells. The concentration of VEGF was significantly decreased and PEDF increased, thereby the VEGF/PEDF ratio was decreased in the hypoxia + 3-MA group and hypoxia + CQ group compared with that in the hypoxia group. CONCLUSION: Hypoxia leads to elevated autophagy in RPE cells, and expression of VEGF and PEDF might be regulated by autophagy on exposure to hypoxia to further participate in regulating the formation of retinal neovascularization.
2019, 12(4):563-570. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.06
Abstract:AIM: To find out an animal-free, xeno-free culture method for human fetal retinal pigment epithelium (fRPE) cells aiming for cell-replacement therapy. METHODS: Human AB serum, knock-out serum replacement (KSR) and B27 were supplemented as a substitute of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in culture medium of human fRPE cells. Cell morphology was examined by light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Proliferation ability was detected by cell cycle analysis and examination of KI67 expression. Apoptosis was analyzed using FACS. The expression of RPE-specific markers was demonstrated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Western blot (WB) and immunocytochemistry. Paracrine function was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. RESULTS: Our results indicated that the optimum concentration of KSR was 15%, the optimum concentration of B27 was 2%, and the optimum concentration of human AB serum was 10%. fRPE cells cultured in 15% KSR and 2% B27 media showed repressed propagation and differentiation ability, and gradually lost epithelial morphology and RPE function. While fRPE cells cultured in 10% human AB serum media showed a typical cobblestone morphology with pigmentation, elevated proliferation ability, satisfying paracrine function and expressed RPE-specific markers. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that culturing fRPE cells in 10% human AB serum-supplemented medium is more favorable compared with KSR, B27 and traditional FBS-supplemented mediums when fRPE cells are to be applied in cell-based therapy.
2019, 12(4):571-576. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.07
Abstract:AIM: To investigate neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) gene mutation at mRNA levels in sporadic orbitocranial meningioma and its association with progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA expression. METHODS: This was a case-control study. Thirty-four sporadic meningioma patients with no familial NF2-related meningioma history were recruited. They were interviewed for their obstetric, gynecologic, and contraception history. PR investigation was performed with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). NF2 mutation was investigated using Qbiomarker Somatic Mutation PCR Assay at NF2 mRNA level after its cDNA extraction (four mRNA mutation cytoband coordinates for nucleotide change: c.634C>T/p.Q212, c.655G>A/p.V219M, c.784C>T/p.R262 and c.1228C>T/p. Q410). RESULTS: After mutation analysis at mRNA level, NF2 gene mutation was found in 35.29% patients. Non-mutation group was strongly associated with exogenous hormonal exposure (non-mutation vs mutation: 95.5% vs 83.3%, P<0.001). PR mRNA was found significantly lower in non-mutation group (P=0.033) which presumed as long term exogenous progesterone exposure. However, mutation group was associated with higher rate of progression to grade II (mutation vs non-mutation, 18.2% vs 5%, P<0.001) and was associated more in fibrous and anaplastic tumor tissue. CONCLUSION: NF2 mutation-meningioma is associated with higher grade of meningioma. Non NF2 mutation-meningioma is strongly associated with exogenous progesterone exposure and lower PR expression.
2019, 12(4):577-581. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.08
Abstract:AIM: To validate the ability of the Heidelberg Edge Perimeter (HEP) in detecting glaucomatous visual field (VF) defects compared to the Octopus Visual Field (OVF) Analyzer and to determine the test-retest repeatability of both modalities. METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Glaucoma subjects and unaffected controls underwent VF testing using HEP standard automated perimetry (SAP) III 30-2 Adaptive Staircase Thresholding Algorithm (ASTA) FAST protocol and OVF G-TOP white-on-white strategy. Testing order was randomized. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated for both mean deviation (MD) and pattern standard deviation/square root of loss of variance (PSD/sLV). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the diagnostic abilities of both modalities. Glaucoma subjects returned for repeat testing and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to assess test-retest repeatability. RESULTS: Seventy-nine subjects with glaucoma and 36 unaffected controls were enrolled. HEP and OVF were significantly correlated for both MD (r=-0.84; P<0.01) and PSD/sLV (r=0.79; P<0.01). Areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) were also comparable between HEP and OVF for both MD (0.74 and 0.79, respectively; P=0.26) and PSD/sLV (0.74 and 0.82; P=0.08). ICC was high for both HEP (0.96 for MD, 0.95 for PSD/sLV) and OVF (0.82 and 0.88, respectively). Mean test duration (min) was significantly shorter for OVF (2.63) compared to HEP (5.15; P<0.01). CONCLUSION: HEP and OVF show strong correlation for both MD and PSD/sLV, and have similar validity for detecting glaucoma. The test-retest repeatability is high for both HEP and OVF, however the average testing duration of HEP is significantly longer than that of OVF.
2019, 12(4):582-586. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.09
Abstract:AIM: To compare and evaluate the clinical outcomes of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) and excimer laser assisted anterior lamellar keratoplasty (ELLK) in eyes with keratoconus. METHODS: In this study, 57 eyes of 56 patients operated between 2013 to 2017 were included. Thirty-one eyes underwent big-bubble DALK and twenty-six eyes underwent ELLK. Preoperative and at control visits complete ophthalmic examination was performed. RESULTS: The mean patient age at the time of DALK surgery was 27y and mean follow-up period was 21±5.4mo. The mean patient age at the time of ELLK surgery was 27y and mean follow-up period was 40±18mo. Mean best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) at postoperative period was significantly higher for DALK group (0.66±0.11) versus ELLK group (0.4±0.2) (P<0.05). Descemet’s membrane microperforation was occurred in 7 patients in DALK group versus in 1 patient in ELLK group. In 4 eyes, interface irregularity was developed in ELLK group. None of the patients in follow-up had graft rejection in both groups. CONCLUSION: In ELLK group, complication rate is lower, the surgical technique is simpler, faster and safer and also ELLK requires less experience with respect to DALK. Further, DALK can be performed unless satisfactory visual acuity is achieved after ELLK.
2019, 12(4):587-591. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.10
Abstract:AIM: To define the corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) and corneal compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) prior to and following coaxial micro-incision phacoemulsification in patients with corneal astigmatism. METHODS: Of 97 patients with cataracts were enrolled in the study. Group 1 included patients with corneal astigmatism (K1-K2) values of K1-K2<+1.0 D, and group 2 with values of K1-K2 ≥+1.0 D and ≤+2.25 D. Coaxial micro-incision phacoemulsification of a corneal incision of 2.0 mm with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation was performed. CH, CRF, IOPg, IOPcc, waveform score (WS) were measured preoperatively and one week, one month postoperatively using an Ocular Response Analyzer. Axial length (AXL) was calculated by Tomey Optical Biometer OA 2000. RESULTS: Group 1 consisted of 51 patients with mean corneal astigmatism value of +0.49±0.25 D. Group 2 included 46 patients with astigmatism of +1.43±0.43 D. In group 1, CRF (t=2.68, P<0.05), CH (t=2.64, P<0.05) and WS (t=3.51, P<0.05) were significantly lower one week postoperatively, when compared to the preoperative values. CRF significantly decreased (t=3.61, P<0.05) when measured one month following the surgery. In group 2 CH (t=5.92, P<0.05), and WS (t=3.96, P<0.05) were significantly lowered one week after cataract surgery. Moreover, we observed a significant decrease in IOPg (t=2.24, P<0.05), CRF (t=5.05, P<0.05) and CH (t=2.31, P<0.05) one month after phacoemulsification. There was no statistically significant (t=-0.83, P=0.41) difference in AXL between study groups. CONCLUSION: CRF, CH and IOPg are reduced in patients with preoperative corneal astigmatism equal or higher than +1.0 D and lower than +2.25 D. Hence, bias of IOPg measurement in these patients may cause underestimation of the real IOP both before and after cataract surgery. The measurement of IOPcc allows the precise assessment of IOP pre- and postoperatively, independently on corneal astigmatism, CH and CRF values.
2019, 12(4):592-596. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.11
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the surgical results of sulcus intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in children with unilateral anterior persistent fetal vasculature (PFV) underwent primary vitrectomy combined with lensectomy and preservation of the peripheral anterior capsule. METHODS: Twenty-two eyes of 22 children with unilateral anterior PFV who underwent sulcus secondary IOL implantation were analyzed. Main outcome measures were preoperative and postoperative visual acuity, and complications both intraoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: Review of 22 consecutive patients identified best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improvement from 1.37±0.84 to 0.73±0.57 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) after IOL implantation (P<0.001) with a mean follow-up was 16.55±5.86mo. Average age at secondary IOL implantation was 41.05±15.41mo. Three eyes (13.64%) achieved BCVA of 0.3 logMAR at the final visit. Transient intraocular pressure rise (4 eyes; 18.18%), postoperative increased inflammation (3 eyes; 13.64%) and postoperative hypotony (2 eyes; 9.09%) were common complications. CONCLUSION: Properly preservation of the anterior lens capsule during the primary surgery facilitated secondary sulcus IOL implantation in pediatric patients with anterior PFV, with favorable postoperative visual outcomes and compatible percentage of complications.
2019, 12(4):597-602. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.12
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the safety and the efficacy of the ultrasound ciliary plasty (UCP) on the intraocular pressure (IOP) control in glaucomatous eyes without previous glaucoma surgery. METHODS: A retrospective study included patients with primary and secondary glaucoma who underwent UCP in Dar AlShifa Hospital, Kuwait between January 2017 to June 2018. High-intensity focused ultrasound procedures were performed under peribulbar anesthesia using the 2nd generation probe with 8s duration of each of the 6 shots. Complete ophthalmologic examinations were scheduled pre-treatment, and at 1d, 1wk, 1, 3, 6 and 12mo post-treatment. Primary outcomes were the IOP reduction and success rates at 12mo, while the secondary outcomes were the occurrence of vision threatening complications and visual acuity. RESULTS: The records of 62 eyes of 62 patients were analyzed with mean age of 63.8y (67.7% males). There was statistically significant reduction in the mean IOP from 35.2±8.3 mm Hg before treatment to 20.6±8.7 mm Hg at 12th month (P<0.0005) with a mean percentage IOP reduction of 42.3% with significant reduction in the mean number of antiglaucomatous drugs from 3.2±0.4 before treatment to 2.1±1.02 at 12mo (P<0.0005). Qualified success was achieved in 77.4% of eyes at 12mo. No major intra- or post-treatment complications were reported. CONCLUSION: Second-generation UCP prove to be effective in reducing IOP in naive glaucoma patients with lower success rates in cases of neovascular and uveitic glaucomas.
2019, 12(4):603-606. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.13
Abstract:AIM: To assess choroidal thickness (CT) and its association with ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness (GCIPLT) and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in open angle glaucoma (OAG) comparing with preperimetric glaucoma (PPG) and normal eyes. METHODS: Totally 55 eyes of OAG, 40 eyes of PPG, and 40 eyes of age-matched normal eyes were studied. Peripapillary CT (PCT), macular CT (MCT), RNFLT, and GCIPLT were evaluated. Relationship between the CT with RNFLT and GCIPLT were studied. The correlation between CT and confounding variables as gender, age, intraocular pressure, and visual field mean deviation were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean PCT were 113.6±39.1 μm in OAG, 116.3±42.7 μm in PPG, and 148.9±41.7 μm in normal eyes. PCT and MCT was thinner in OAG compared to healthy eyes. There was a significant correlation for PCT and mean RNFLT in 1, 2, 6, and 7 clock hours of OAG eyes. The difference in PCT remained after adjusting for axial length, age, and disc area (P=0.003). No significant correlation was shown between MCT and mean GCIPLT in all eyes. CONCLUSION: PCT is thinner in OAG and PPG compared with healthy eyes. The correlation of RNFLT and PCT found in OAG and PPG is not revealed in normal eyes.
2019, 12(4):607-614. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.14
Abstract:AIM: To identify CYP1B1 gene mutations and evaluate their possible role as a prognostic factor for success rates in the surgical management of Egyptian congenital glaucoma patients. METHODS: Totally 42 eyes of 29 primary congenital glaucoma patients were operated on with combined trabeculotomy/trabeculectomy with mitomycin-C and followed up at 1d, 1wk, 1, 6 and 12mo postoperatively. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Coding regions of CYP1B1 gene were amplified using 13 pairs of primers, screened for mutations using single-strand conformation polymorphism followed by sequencing of both strands. Efficacy of the operation was graded as either a success [maintaining intraocular pressure (IOP) less than 21 mm Hg with or without anti-glaucoma medication], or a failure (IOP more than 21 mm Hg with topical antiglaucoma medications). RESULTS: Seven novel mutations out of a total of 15 different mutations were found in the CYP1B1 genes of 14 patients (48.2%). The presence of CYP1B1 gene mutations did not correlate with the failure of the surgery (P=0.156, odds ratio=3.611, 95%CI, 0.56 to 22.89); while the positive consanguinity strongly correlated with failure of the initial procedure (P=0.016, odds ratio=11.25, 95%CI, 1.57 to 80.30). However, the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a significantly lower time of IOP control in the subgroup with mutations in CYP1B1 versus the congenital primary glaucoma group without mutations (log rank test, P=0.015). CONCLUSION: Seven new CYP1B1 mutations are identified in Egyptian patients. Patients harboring confirmed mutations suffered from early failure of the initial surgery. CYP1B1 mutations could be considered as a prognostic factor for surgery in primary congenital glaucoma.
2019, 12(4):615-620. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.15
Abstract:AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of a heavy silicone oil (Densiron 68) in the management of inferior retinal detachment recurrence. METHODS: A retrospective non-comparative consecutive case series study. Forty-nine cases of complex inferior retinal detachment were treated using Densiron 68 heavy silicone oil (HSO) as the endotamponade. Our main purpose was anatomic reattachment following Densiron 68 removal. Functional outcomes, rate of recurrences, the presence of inflammatory complications and intraocular pressure alterations were evaluated. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients affected by complex retinal re-detachment were recruited. The mean follow-up was 7.6 (±1.5) mo. The mean best corrected visual acuity after Densiron 68 removal was 0.95 logMAR, standard error (SE: 0.068). Retinal reattachment was 61.2% after first surgery and 81.6% after second surgery. Nineteen cases (38.8%) had recurrences when intraocular heavy silicon oil was in situ, 26.3% (5 cases) of which involved the inferior retina. CONCLUSION: Densiron 68 ef?ciently fills the inferior retinal periphery and might lower the risk of inferior proliferative vitreoretinopathy development, in particular after a standard silicon oil tamponade that reduces the proliferative process in the upper quadrants of the retina.
2019, 12(4):621-626. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.16
Abstract:AIM: To report the visual outcomes and refractive status in premature infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) who were or not treated. METHODS: The clinical records of all premature infants with or without ROP and with or without treatment between 2007 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Basic demographic data, serial changes in ROP incidence, treatment and outcomes, and the refractive states were analyzed. Correlations among myopia and astigmatism progression, birth weight, gestational age, and treatment methods were also analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 562 screened premature infants (all Chinese, 1124 eyes), were recruited with a 378:184 male-to-female ratio. Birth weight did not directly influence ROP incidence. The overall ROP incidence was 16.55% (93/562 cases). The incidences in boys and girls were 16.14% (33/378 cases) and 17.39% (32/184 cases), respectively, and this difference was not significant. However, all infants with serious ROP (stage IV and V) were male. Myopia combined with astigmatism was common in premature infants with and without ROP (30.99%, 172/555 cases), and myopic refraction (including myopia and myopia combined with astigmatism) was more common in premature infants with ROP (48.84%, 42/86 cases). In the >8.00 diopter group, there were significantly more ROP infants than without ROP. Myopic refraction (including myopia and myopia combined with astigmatism) was most common in infants with ROP after treatment (63.63%, 7/11 cases). CONCLUSION: The refractive state is different between premature infants and mature infants. Those treated for ROP had a higher chance of developing myopia, astigmatism, and higher diopter.
2019, 12(4):627-633. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.17
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate a modified technique for scleral buckling (SB) in pseudophakic retinal detachment (RD). METHODS: A retrospective non-comparative study included 21 consecutive eyes with uncomplicated pseudophakic RD that was repaired by chandelier assisted SB using wide angle viewing (WAV) contact lens. Segmental tire alone was used in 5 eyes (23.81%), and combined with encircling band in 7 eyes (33.33%). Radial sponge alone was used in 3 eyes (14.29%) and combined with encircling band in 6 eyes (28.57%). RESULTS: Primary success rate was (90.48%). External drainage of subretinal fluid was performed in 8 eyes (38.1%). Intraoperative complications included vitreous prolapse at chandelier sclerotomy site in 4 eyes (19.05%) and localized subretinal hemorrhage at drainage site in one eye (4.76%). No case of intraocular lens (IOL) displacement, retinal incarceration or iatrogenic retinal tear was detected. Postoperative complications included choroidal detachment in one eye (4.76%), elevated intraocular pressure in 2 eyes (9.52%), epiretinal membrane formation in one eye (4.76%) and proliferative vitreoretinopathy in 3 eyes (14.29%). Mean postoperative corrected distance visual acuity was 0.7±0.3 logMAR units. CONCLUSION: Chandelier-assisted SB using WAV contact lens is a reliable technique for repairing selected cases of simple pseudophakic RD.
2019, 12(4):634-639. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.18
Abstract:AIM: To study the changes of the resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) between acute eye pain (EP) subjects and healthy controls (HCs) in the two hemispheres by using voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method. METHODS: Totally 20 patients with EP and 20 HCs were enrolled, sex, age, and education were matched, and all subjects were examined by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans at resting-state. The changes of rsFC between the hemispheres were evaluated by the VMHC method according to Gaussian random field (GRF) theory. In order to identify the VMHC, as biomarkers for distinguishing EP and from HC, the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) had been analyzed. The relationships were evaluated with Pearson correlation analysis between the mean VMHC signal values and clinical features in these patients. RESULTS: By comparing with health subjects, the significant decreased VMHC values was observed in lingual/calcarine (Brodmann area, BA 30), precentral/postcentral gyrus (PreCG/PosCG; BA 4) and medial frontal gyrus (MFG; BA 8) (false discovery rate corrected <0.01) in the acute EP individuals. The accuracy of area under curve was excellent indicated by the ROC curve analysis of each brain regions. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates preliminary evidence of disrupted interhemispheric rsFC in acute EP in sensorimotor and limbic system and somatosensory cortex, which might give some useful information for understanding the neurological mechanisms in acute EP individuals.
2019, 12(4):640-646. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.19
Abstract:AIM: To assess and compare the impact of a daily disposable contact lens (CL) with high water content on the ocular surface and comfort of the presbyopic and non-presbyopic population after one day of use. METHODS: Totally 20 presbyopes and 30 non-presbyopes non-contact wearers were fitted with nesofilcon A CLs. CL thickness was measured to assess material stability during daily wear, and ocular surface parameters were also assessed. Optical quality was analyzed for all cases. In addition, CL comfort was rated. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in CL thickness, tear film osmolarity, average tear break-up time, bulbar redness, central corneal thickness, corneal volume, root-mean-square of higher-order aberrations (RMS of HOAs) and vertical and horizontal coma, either as a function of the group or time of use. A significant decrease in tear meniscus height and first break-up of the tear film was found in the presbyopic group (P=0.038; P=0.007 respectively). A decrease in spherical aberration coefficient was found after CL insertion (P=0.031 monofocal CL; P=0.023 low addition multifocal CL; P=0.016 high addition multifocal CL). Multifocal CL were thicker than monofocal CL (P=0.045). Comparison between groups showed more discomfort in presbyopes than non-presbyopes (P=0.003). CONCLUSION: This study evidence that the behavior of the daily disposable CL with high water content seems to be stable during the day of use. Ocular parameters measured during wear show that CL behavior is the same for presbyopes and non-presbyopes, being more uncomfortable for presbyopes.
2019, 12(4):647-653. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.20
Abstract:AIM: To estimate and compare the frequency of accommodative insufficiency (AI) within the same clinical population sample depending on the type of clinical criteria used for diagnosis. Comparing the frequency within the same population would help to minimize bias due to sampling or methodological variability. METHODS: Retrospective study of 205 medical records of symptomatic subjects free of any organic cause and symptoms persisting despite optical compensation evaluated. Based on the most commonly clinical diagnostics criteria found in the literature, four diagnostics criteria were established for AI (I, II, III and IV) based on subjective accommodative tests: monocular accommodative amplitude two or more diopters below Hofstetter’s minimum value [15-(0.25×age)] (I, II, III, IV); failing monocular accommodative facility with minus lens, establishing the cut-off in 0 cycles per minute (cpm) (I) and in 6 cpm (II, III); failing binocular accommodative facility with minus lens, establishing the cut-off in 0 cpm (I) and in 3 cpm (II). RESULTS: The proportion of AI (95%CI) for criteria I, II, III and IV were 1.95% (0.04%-3.86%), 2.93% (0.31%-4.57%), 6.34% (1.90%-7.85%) and 41.95% (35.14%-48.76%) respectively, with a statistically significant difference shown between these values (χ2=226.7, P<0.001). A pairwise multiple comparison revealed that the proportion of AI detected for criterion IV was significantly greater than the proportion for the rest of the criteria (P-adjusted<0.05 in all cases). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cases of AI within the same clinical population varies with the clinical diagnostic criteria selected. The variation is statistically significant when considering the monocular accommodative amplitude as the only clinical diagnostic sign.
2019, 12(4):654-659. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.21
Abstract:AIM: To investigate the predictive factors of the opaque bubble layer (OBL) compared to the fellow eye of same patients in FS200 femtosecond laser assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK). METHODS: This study consisted of 60 consecutive patients (120 eyes) with unilateral OBL during FS-LASIK. Eyes were divided into OBL (the OBL eyes) and OBL-free groups (the fellow eyes) based on the occurrence of OBL. The preoperative demographic data, refraction, keratometry, corneal astigmatism, pachymetry, intraocular pressure and intraoperative data including the outlet location of gas diffusing canal were collected. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to find the associated factors with OBL in the two groups by determining odds ratios (OR) and 95%CI. RESULTS: The preoperative demographic data, mean spherical errors, mean K value, suction time, intraocular pressure and central cornea thickness were not significantly different between the two groups. The outlet location of gas diffusing canal (P<0.01, OR 7.16, 95%CI 2.53-20.32) and the corneal astigmatism (P=0.013, OR 0.13, 95%CI 0.03-0.65) were significantly associated with the incidence of OBL by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Visual acuity, efficacy, and safety were comparable between the two groups two months after surgery except for a slightly lower predictability value for the hard OBL eyes. CONCLUSION: The reduction of the incidence of OBL is obvious when the outlet of gas diffusing canal located at the posterior border of the corneoscleral limbus. This is probably consequent to more effectiveness of gas diffusing canal. Corneal astigmatism is also an independent protective factor for OBL formation.
2019, 12(4):660-667. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.22
Abstract:The pathogenesis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment depends on three factors, namely, retinal rupture, vitreous liquefaction and traction causing the retina to separate from the pigment epithelium, among which retinal rupture is the most important. Retinopathy is caused by a gap between the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium, which severely damages the visual function of the patient. Therefore, early clinical discovery, prevention and selection of an appropriate treatment are important. This article reviews progress in the treatment of retinal detachment.
2019, 12(4):668-674. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.23
Abstract:AIM: To elucidate the association of treatment modality to vitreoretinal fibrosis and traction retinal detachment (TRD) in Coats’ disease. METHODS: A PubMed search for Coats’ disease with included studies describing eyes with clinical features and treatment course of Coats’ disease. Binary logistic regression with fibrosis at presentation and treatment type as independent variables was performed to determine predictors of TRD historically (since 1921) and in the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) era (since 2007). Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) reported. RESULTS: Of 175 articles described 1183 eyes. Vitreoretinal fibrosis increased from presentation (5.4%) to follow-up (15.5%) and TRD increased from 0.44% to 3.9% at follow up. Laser was protective against vitreoretinal fibrosis (OR 0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9) but TRD was borderline (OR 0.6, 95%CI 0.3-1.1). Cryotherapy showed a higher association with TRD (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.0-3.7) than with vitreoretinal fibrosis (OR 0.8, 95%CI 0.5-1.2). Similarly, intravitreal anti-VEGF alone was not associated with fibrosis (OR 1.1, 95%CI 0.6-1.8) nor TRD (OR 1.1, 95%CI 0.5-2.6) but the combination of laser and anti-VEGF therapy was protective [Fibrosis: 0.1 (0.03, 0.35); TRD: 0.05 (0.01, 0.23)] compared to anti-VEGF plus cryotherapy (P<0.001). Disease stage ≤2B or ≥3A was not associated with TRD. CONCLUSION: Vitreoretinal fibrosis and TRD increase after treatment in Coats’ disease. The combination of anti-VEGF agents and cryotherapy may lead to higher risk for TRD. Presence of pre-treatment fibrosis is the highest risk factor for post-treatment worsening of vitreoretinal fibrosis and TRD.
2019, 12(4):675-680. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.24
Abstract:To evaluate post-miosis changes in the anterior chamber structures in various angle-closure glaucomas (ACG). Totally 14 eyes of primary chronic angle-closure glaucoma (PCACG), 12 eyes of lens-induced secondary chronic angle-closure glaucoma (LSACG) and 14 healthy eyes were recruited. After miosis, for PCACG group, intraocular pressure (IOP) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) changed not significantly, while anterior chamber angle widened significantly. LSACG group showed a significant increase in IOP, decrease in ACD, and narrowing in anterior chamber angle. Healthy eyes showed significant decreases in IOP and anterior chamber parameters. Thus, miosis could widen the anterior chamber angle of patients with PCACG, while increase the narrowing of anterior chamber angle and IOP of patients with LSACG. We should pay attention to the distinction between PCACG and LSACG patients and the proper administration of pilocarpine in the treatment of patients with chronic ACG.
2019, 12(4):681-684. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.25
Abstract:Accommodative response and its possible role in myopia development has been explored through the study of the microfluctuations (MFs) of accommodation, which are commonly divided in high (1.0 to 2.3 Hz) and low (0.1 to 0.6 Hz) frequency components. Previous research efforts have evidenced that a certain percentage of the amplitude of MFs seems not to originate in the accommodative response. We aimed to develop and test a new approach to reduce this non-accommodative noise. For this purpose, ten healthy participants were enrolled to determine the difference between the amplitude of MFs at near and distance for each range of frequencies, which was defined as the relative amplitude of MFs. The findings support the exploration of the relative rather than absolute values of the amplitude of MFs to better understand the contribution of both accommodative and non-accommodative factors to MFs.
2019, 12(4):695-696. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2019.04.29
Editors-in-Chief: Yan-Nian Hui and Peter Wiedemann
Established in April, 2008
ISSN 2222-3959 print
ISSN 2227-4898 online