• Volume 15,Issue 10,2022 Table of Contents
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    • >Editorial
    • LOVE your eyes--World Sight Day 2022

      2022, 15(10):1567-1568. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.01

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    • >Basic Research
    • Pharmacological drug screening to inhibit uveal melanoma metastatic cells either via EGF-R, MAPK, mTOR or PI3K

      2022, 15(10):1569-1576. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.02

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      Abstract:AIM: To screen five potential pharmacological substances specifically targeting EGF-R, MAPK, mTOR, or PI3K for their antiproliferative effects, possible impact on cell viability, as well as cell death rates on three different uveal melanoma metastasis cell lines in vitro. METHODS: Three different uveal melanoma metastasis cell lines (OMM2.5, OMM2.3, and OMM1), that originated from human hepatic and subcutaneous metastasis, were exposed to inhibitors of different targets: erlotinib (EGF-R), everolimus (mTOR), selumetinib (MAPK), trametinib (MAPK) or the alkylphosphocholine erufosine (PI3K). Cell viability was assessed with a 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) dye reduction assay after 24h of treatment. Antiproliferative effects were evaluated separately after a 72-hour incubation of the cells with the pharmacological substance. Subsequently, the IC50 was calculated. Tumor cell death was investigated using a double stain apoptosis detection assay. RESULTS: Selumetinib, trametinib, and erufosine significantly decreased cell viability of all OMM cell lines (P<0.04). In addition, selumetinib and trametinib showed a significant inhibition of cell proliferation (P<0.05). Everolimus and erlotinib solely inhibited cell proliferation at the used concentrations (P<0.05). Besides an increase of necrotic cells after erufosine treatment (P<0.001), no changes in the number of dead cells for the other substances were observed. CONCLUSION: The preliminary drug screening demonstrates five new candidates, successfully targeting the canonical MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways in uveal melanoma metastasis cells in vitro. Hence, these findings provide an experimental basis to explore future single or combined therapy strategies for metastatic uveal melanoma.

    • Effect of intravitreal ranibizumab on fibrovascular membranes in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

      2022, 15(10):1577-1585. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.03

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      Abstract:AIM: To assess the effects of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) on angiogenesis and glial activity of the fibrovascular membrane (FVM) in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: Forty-two eyes from 42 patients with PDR requiring vitrectomy were included and divided into two groups: control group (n=16) did not receive IVR, while IVR group (n=26) underwent IVR 5d before vitrectomy. FVM specimens were collected by the same surgeon during the interventions. Histopathological morphology was examined by hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) staining and cell densities in the FVM was assessed. Microvessels were outlined by immunohistochemical staining of CD31 and microvessel density (MVD) assessed as an index of FVM angiogenesis. Dual-color immunofluorescence staining, and confocal microscopy was used to detect co-localization and relative expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) as markers of glial-mesenchymal transition (GMT). The GMT index (GI; ratio of relative GFAP/α-SMA expression) was used to semi-quantify the degree of GMT or glial activity of FVMs. RESULTS: H-E staining showed similar vascularization in both groups, with microvessels and scattered stromal cells in the matrix. Infiltrated cell densities did not differ significantly between the two groups (P>0.05). The MVD of the IVR group (130.62±15.46/mm2) was significantly lower than that of the controls (142.25±19.16/mm2, P<0.05). In both groups, all sections were strongly immunostained for GFAP and α-SMA. The Pearson’s correlation coefficients (PCC) of intensity of automated pixel count of two markers indicated GFAP and α-SMA co-stained well and GMT participated in the remolding of FVMs in PDR. The mean relative GFAP expression in the IVR group was significantly lower, whereas that of α-SMA was significantly higher than in controls (P<0.05). GI in the IVR group (1.10±0.10) was significantly lower than in the controls (1.21±0.12, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: IVR can reduce angiogenesis, glial activity of FVM and promote glial-fibrotic transformation by reducing MVD and promoting GMT but does not decrease the cell density in patients with PDR.

    • >Clinical Research
    • Lacrimal sac lymphoma: a case series and literature review

      2022, 15(10):1586-1590. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.04

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      Abstract:AIM: To study the clinical and pathological characteristics of the lacrimal sac lymphoma, which is rare but it is the major type of non-epithelial malignant tumor in the lacrimal sac region. METHODS: Sixty-four cases of malignant lacrimal sac tumors in our hospital from 1986 to 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Eight cases of lacrimal sac lymphoma were carefully reviewed. RESULTS: There were five mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas, one diffused large B-cell lymphoma, one NK/T cell lymphoma, and one mantle cell lymphoma. All eight patients represented symptoms of epiphora with swelling in the lacrimal sac for a certain period of time and showed no signs of systemic involvement at the first time of clinical visits. They had received either chemotherapy or radiotherapy after surgery. Long-term follow-up (from 11 to 220mo) showed that, except one patient with MALT lymphoma died for unknown reasons at 104mo after surgery, the other 7 patients were all alive with no signs of local recurrence, neither in other organs. CONCLUSION: Non-epithelial malignant tumors of the lacrimal sac are rare and lymphoma is the major subtype.

    • Age-related changes of lens thickness and density in different age phases

      2022, 15(10):1591-1597. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.05

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      Abstract:AIM: To explore the changes in lens thickness and density with age. METHODS: A Chinese population-based retrospective study was performed. A total of 497 individuals (490 right eyes and 495 left eyes), ranging from 3 to 69 years old were included. Lens images obtained from IOL Master 700 were used to measure lens thickness and density. Piecewise regression model was chosen to illustrate the relationship of lens thickness and density with age. RESULTS: The proportion of people aged 3-18, 19-40, over 40 was 38.6%, 50.9% and 10.5% respectively. The whole lens thickness decreased with age during the first 7 years of life, kept stable from 8 to 16 years old, and then increased at the rate of about 27 µm per year. The thickness of the lens cortex and nucleus tended to decrease first and then increase with age, which was dependent on age stages. The whole lens density also decreased with age until 7 years old. The increasing rate of lens density was different in different age groups. The whole lens density increased rapidly from 7 to 22 years old and slowed down after 22 years old. Similarly, the changing tendency of lens cortical and nuclear density differed in different age phases. CONCLUSION: Both lens thickness and density are significantly associated with age, whereas they do not change linearly with age. Moreover, it is necessary to increase the population over 40 years old and conduct further research.

    • Therapeutic potential of pupilloplasty combined with phacomulsification and intraocular lens implantation against uveitis-induced cataract

      2022, 15(10):1598-1603. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.06

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of pupilloplasty combined with phacomulsification and intraocular lens implantation (PPI) in uveitis-induced cataract. METHODS: Total 28 patients with uveitis-induced cataract were enrolled. Within 3mo before the PPI, 7 cases accompanied with glaucoma maintained carteolol hydrochloride for lowering intraocular pressure, and 1 case maintained glucocorticoid for anti-inflammation. The baseline characteristics, treatment processes, and outcomes of enrolled cases were retrospectively analyzed. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was performed to reveal the histopathological changes of iris tissues. RESULTS: Iris hemorrhage was the only intraoperative complication observed in 2 cases. After the surgery, normal intraocular pressure, right position of intraocular lens, and improved visual gain [best corrected visual acuity (BCVA)>0.5] were achieved. Postoperative keratic precipitates was observed in 2 cases, which was recovered within 1wk. During the follow-up of 5-10y, no recurrence of uveitis was found in 27 cases (96.43%). Uveitis only recurred in one case with the onset of ankylosing spondylitis. HE staining showed iris stroma (all samples), pigment cell hyperplasia in pigment epithelium (n=9) and stroma (n=19), inflammatory cell infiltration in iris (n=7), and neovascularization in iris surface (n=2). CONCLUSION: PPI improves the visual gain and prevents the long-term recurrence of uveitis in patients with uveitis-induced cataract, including those with preoperative intraocular pressure abnormality (glaucoma) and inflammation (active uveitis). Uveitis presents stroma atrophy, pigment cell hyperplasia, and inflammatory cell infiltration, even in a quiet state.

    • Efficacy of microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy on secondary glaucoma after congenital cataract surgery

      2022, 15(10):1604-1610. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.07

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      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate efficacy of microcatheter-assisted trabeculotomy (MAT) in eyes with secondary glaucoma after congenital cataract surgery and explore its correlation with the different degree of trabeculotomy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients who underwent the said procedure between September 2019 and September 2020. The patients were classified into two groups according to the degree of trabeculotomy (group 1: ≤240-degree; group 2: 240–360-degree). The intraocular pressure (IOP) and anti-glaucoma drugs before and after operation was collected during the 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: Totally 27 eyes of 25 patients were included: 11 (40.7%) eyes in group 1 and 16 (59.3%) eyes in group 2. The mean IOP of all patients was 34.67±9.18 mm Hg preoperatively and 8.74±4.32, 9.95±5.65, 14.39±5.30, 16.02±4.37, 15.82±3.28, and 16.19±3.56 mm Hg 1d, 1wk, 1, 3, 6, and 12mo after surgery, respectively. In all patients, there were significant differences in IOP at each time point (F=65.614, P<0.01). In each group, IOP after surgery was lower than that before surgery (all P<0.01), but there was no difference in the rate of IOP reduction between the two groups (P=0.246). Furthermore, the amount of anti-glaucoma medications reduced to 0.30±0.67 (0–2) at 12mo from 2.63±0.49 (2–3) preoperatively (P<0.01), and there was no difference between the two groups (P>0.05). At the end of follow-up, the partial success rate was 81.8% in group 1 vs 93.75% in group 2 (P=0.549). Various amount of intraoperative and postoperative hyphema occurred in all eyes, which spontaneously absorbed or cleaned through paracentesis and irrigation. No other serious complications was observed. CONCLUSION: MAT can effectively reduce IOP in patients with secondary glaucoma after congenital cataract surgery with a high success rate and safety. And it can be used as the first choice for the treatment of secondary glaucoma after surgery for congenital cataracts.

    • Prophylaxis with intraocular pressure lowering medication and glaucomatous progression in patients receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy

      2022, 15(10):1611-1618. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.08

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      Abstract:AIM: To investigate whether pretreatment with pressure-lowering medication prior to anti-vascular endothelial factor (VEGF) injections had an effect on glaucomatous progression in patients with preexisting glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT). METHODS: A total of 66 eyes from 54 patients with a preexisting diagnosis of glaucoma or OHT, treated with six or more anti-VEGF injections were selected for chart review. Primary outcome measures were rate of visual field loss in dB/year, rate of change in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in microns/year, and need for additional glaucoma intervention. RESULTS: The number of eyes requiring additional glaucoma medication was 5 of 20 (25.0%) and 14 of 46 (30.4%) for the pretreated and non-pretreated groups, respectively. The number of eyes requiring glaucoma laser or surgery was 4 of 20 (20.0%) and 13 of 46 (28.3%) for the pretreated and non-pretreated groups, respectively. Estimated mean rate of pattern standard deviation decline was not significant in either group (P>0.073), with no difference between groups (P=0.332). Although both groups showed significant RNFL change from baseline (P<0.011), no difference was detected between groups (P=0.467). CONCLUSION: Pretreatment has no detectable effect on structural or functional glaucomatous progression. Patients receiving repeated injections may be at risk for glaucomatous complications requiring invasive intervention.

    • Optimal timing of preoperative intravitreal anti-VEGF injection for proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients

      2022, 15(10):1619-1626. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.09

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      Abstract:AIM: To analyze concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibrosis-related factors in vitreous fluid of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients pre-treated with intravitreal anti-VEGF injections (IVI) at different time periods prior to pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), and their correlation with the degree of vitreoretinal fibrosis and explore the optimal timing of preoperative IVI. METHODS: The prospective case-control study from January 2019 to July 2020 included 31 eyes with PDR-related complications (PDR group) and 21 eyes with non-diabetic ocular disease (control group) requiring PPV. PDR eyes were divided into four groups based on timing of PPV: 3d after IVI (3-day group); 5d after IVI (5-day group); 7 or more days after IVI (≥7-day group); and no IVI. Vitreous fluid samples (0.5-1.0 mL) were collected prior to switching on the infusion before routine 23-G PPV. Concentrations of VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), periostin (PN), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured by immunoassay, and concentration differences for each cytokine were compared among the groups. The degree of vitreoretinal fibrosis was graded intraoperatively, and the correlation between the changes in cytokine levels and the severity of vitreoretinal fibrosis was analyzed by univariate ordinal logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: PDR eyes without IVI had significantly higher VEGF, bFGF, PN, and IL-6 concentrations than non-diabetic eyes (all P<0.05), and had a significantly higher concentration of VEGF (P<0.05) and a significantly lower concentration of IL-8 (P<0.05) than PDR eyes with IVI. Statistically significant differences were also observed for concentrations of VEGF, bFGF, PN, IL-6, and IL-8 among 3-day, 5-day, and ≥7-day groups (all P<0.05); meanwhile there was no significant difference in TNF-α among groups (P=0.226). The 5-day group had the lowest concentration of VEGF and the ≥7-day group had the highest concentration of bFGF and PN. The degree of vitreoretinal fibrosis was significantly higher in the ≥7-day group compared to the 3-day (P=0.015) and 5-day group (P=0.039), and vitreoretinal fibrosis correlated significantly with concentrations of bFGF, PN, IL-6, and IL-8 (all P<0.05). Univariate ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that bFGF was an independent risk factor for the severity of vitreoretinal fibrosis in PDR patients pre-treated with IVI. CONCLUSION: The vitreous concentrations of VEGF, bFGF, PN, IL-6, and IL-8 change after pretreatment with IVI before PPV in PDR patients. The degree of vitreoretinal fibrosis is higher in patients with a longer time between IVI treatment and PPV, which may be related to the angio-fibrosis switch. The results suggest that PPV should be performed 5d after IVI administration in PDR patients.

    • Prognosis value of Chinese Ocular Fundus Diseases Society classification for proliferative diabetic retinopathy on postoperative visual acuity after pars plana vitrectomy in type 2 diabetes

      2022, 15(10):1627-1633. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.10

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      Abstract:AIM: To compare the postoperative visual acuity among eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) of different stages after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted for PDR eyes undergoing PPV in type 2 diabetic patients. All patients were divided into three groups based on Chinese Ocular Fundus Diseases Society (COFDS) classification for PDR: Group A (primary vitreous hemorrhage), Group B (primary fibrovascular proliferation) and Group C (primary vitreous hemorrhage and/or fibrovascular proliferative combined with retinal detachment). The postoperative visual acuity and the change between postoperative and preoperative visual acuity were compared among three groups. The associated risk factors for postoperative visual acuity were analyzed in the univariate and multiple linear aggression. RESULTS: In total, 195 eyes of 195 patients were collected in this study, including 71 eyes of 71 patients in Group A, 75 eyes of 75 patients in Group B and 49 eyes of 49 patients in Group C. The eyes in Group A got better postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) compared to the eyes in Group B and C (0.48±0.48 vs 0.89±0.63, P<0.001; 0.48±0.48 vs 1.04±0.67, P<0.001; respectively). The eyes in Group A got more improvement of BCVA compared to the eyes in Group B and C (1.07±0.70 vs 0.73±0.68, P=0.004; 1.07±0.70 vs 0.77±0.78, P=0.024; respectively). In the multiple linear regression analysis, primary fibro-proliferative type (β=0.194, 95%CI=0.060-0.447, P=0.01), retinal detachment type (β=0.244, 95%CI=0.132-0.579, P=0.02), baseline logMAR BCVA (β=0.192, 95%CI=0.068-0.345, P=0.004), silicone oil tamponade (β=0.272, 95%CI=0.173-0.528, P<0.001) was positively correlated with postoperative logMAR BCVA. Eyes undergoing phacovitrectomy had better postoperative BCVA (β=-0.144, 95%CI=-0.389 to -0.027, P=0.025). CONCLUSION: PDR eyes of primary vitreous hemorrhage type usually have better visual acuity prognosis compared to primary fibrovascular proliferation type and retinal detachment type. COFDS classification for PDR may have a high prognostic value for postoperative visual outcome and surgical management indications.

    • Risk factors for the long-term prognosis and recurrence of HIV-negative cytomegalovirus retinitis in North China

      2022, 15(10):1634-1640. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.11

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      Abstract:AIM: To demonstrate the clinical features, the risk factors, the visual prognosis and the recurrence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis (CMVR) in HIV-negative patients. METHODS: HIV-negative patients with CMVR were involved in this study. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), CMV-DNA load in aqueous and/or serum samples, treatment, follow-up time, recurrence and complications were recorded. Ocular characteristics were evaluated by fundus photographs. Association between ocular factors and visual prognosis were analyzed by regression analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-five eyes of 16 patients were included. All 25 eyes underwent intravitreal injections of anti-viral agents. The mean logMAR BCVA improved from 0.94±0.98 (0.98-0.78) initially to 0.77±0.73 (0.82-0.68) at last visit, but not significantly. After antiviral treatment, the aqueous CMV DNA load significantly reduced to (3.42±1.47)×102 copies/mL (P=0.001), compared with (2.51±3.11)×105 copies/mL at baseline. Macular involvement (R2=0.475, P=0.049) and initial visual acuity (R2=0.475, P=0.017) were significantly associated with the poor visual prognosis (BCVA<20/400). The extent of retinal lesions (R2=0.064, P=0.04) was significant associated with the risk of recurrence of CMVR. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal injection of anti-viral agents offers a safe and effective treatment for CMVR. Macular involvement and initial visual acuity significantly associate with visual prognosis. The extent of retinal lesions is significantly associated with the recurrence of CMVR. These ocular factors can be used as predictive risk factors for long term visual prognosis in HIV-negative CMVR patients.

    • Visual field defects and retinal nerve fiber layer damage in buried optic disc drusen: a new insight

      2022, 15(10):1641-1649. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.12

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      Abstract:AIM: To assess the association between buried optic disc drusen (BODD) location using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and the location of associated visual field defects (VFD) using the Garway-Heath mapping. METHODS: This monocentric retrospective cross-sectional study was led at the authors’ institution. Adult patients diagnosed with BODD who had complete records with a reliable Humphrey® 24-2 visual field, macular, and papillary OCT were enrolled. Fisher’s exact test was used to measure the association between BODD location and VFD distribution according to Garway-Heath’s mapping. RESULTS: Totally 20 eyes of 15 patients were included (60% females). The median age (interquartile range) was 63 (43)y and the median best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was -0.08 (0.08) log MAR. BODD were mostly located in zones A, E, and F. The minimal rim width (MRW) was globally preserved. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) was predominantly altered in zones D, E, and F. There was a significant correlation between BODD location and that of RNFL alterations in zones D (P=0.03) and E (P=0.025); Moreover, the presence of BODD in the E zone was significantly related to damaged RNFL in the neighbouring sectors D and F (P=0.012; P=0.02 respectively). Sixty-three percent (12/19) of visual fields were abnormal and there was a significant match (Phi=0.7, P=0.009) between drusen location and VFD only in zone D. CONCLUSION: BODD do not only affect young patients and can be more harmful than usually expected, as we found VFD in 63% of cases. There is a correspondence between BODD location, RNFL damage, and VFD distributions. The presence of BODD induces the overestimation of MRW, thereby disrupting its sensitivity as an early indicator of ganglion fibers damage.

    • Clinical observation of vitrectomy combined with endolaser photocoagulation at the edge of posterior scleral staphyloma for macular hole retinal detachment in high myopia

      2022, 15(10):1650-1656. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.13

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      Abstract:AIM: To observe the clinical effect of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and silicone oil filling surgery combined with intraoperative posterior scleral staphyloma (PS) marginal retinal photocoagulation in the treatment of high myopic macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD) with PS. METHODS: This was a retrospective clinical study. From May 2017 to March 2020, 62 MHRD patients with PS (62 eyes) were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into 23G PPV combined with PS marginal retina intraoperative photocoagulation group (combined group) and conventional surgery group (conventional group), with 31 eyes in each. Triamcinolone acetonide and indocyanine green were used to remove the epiretinal membrane and the posterior macular inner limiting membrane (ILM). In the combined group, 2 to 3 rows of retinal photocoagulation were performed on the edge of the PS. The patients were followed up for an average of 8.34±3.21mo. The first retinal reattachment rate, macular hole closure rate, Duration of silicone oil tamponade, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and average number of operations were observed and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The first retinal reattachment rates of the eyes in the combined group and the conventional group were 96.7% (29/31) and 67.7% (21/31), respectively (χ2=6.613, P=0.010). The macular hole closure rates in the combined group and the conventional group were 74.2% (23/31) and 67.7% (21/31), respectively (χ2=0.128, P=0.721). The Duration of silicone oil tamponade of the patients in the combined group was lower than that of the routine group (t=-41.962, P≤0.001). Postoperative logMAR BCVA values of patients in the combined group and the conventional group were 1.27±0.12 and 1.26±0.11, compared with the logMAR BCVA before surgery, each group was improved (t=19.947, t=-19.517, P≤0.001, P≤0.001). There was no significant difference in the logMAR BCVA between the eyes of the two groups (t=-0.394, P=0.695). The average numbers of operations on the eyes in the conventional group and the combined group were 2.39±0.62 and 2.06±0.25 times, the combined group had fewer operations on average (t=-2.705, P=0.009). CONCLUSION: Intraoperative PPV treatment of MHRD with PS combined with PS marginal endolaser photocoagulation can effectively increase the rate of retinal reattachment after the first operation, reduce the number of repeated operations, and reduce the postoperative duration of silicone oil tamponade.

    • Association of sleep quality with myopia based on different genetic risk levels

      2022, 15(10):1657-1664. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.14

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      Abstract:AIM: To analyse the association of sleep quality with myopia under different genetic risk (GR) levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of students aged 9-14y in Wenzhou, China, was conducted. Refraction without cycloplegia and ocular parameters were measured. Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were replicated by association analysis and used to compute the GR score (GRS). Possible confounders were assessed by a questionnaire that collected information about the children and their parents. Generalized linear models were used to analyse the sleep quality, the GR, and their interaction effects on the risk of myopia. RESULTS: Out of 1354 children included in this study, 353 (26.07%) had sleep disturbances. The GRS ranged from 4.49 to 12.89 with a mean of 7.74±1.23, and the participants were divided into a low GR group, a moderate GR group and a high GR group according to the GRS quartile. In the generalized linear model, the children with sleep disturbances and high GR had a higher risk of myopia than those without sleep disturbances and with low GR (OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.12-2.25; OR=1.88, 95%CI: 1.23-2.88, respectively). Compared to those with low GR and SDs, children with high GR with or without SDs had a higher risk of myopia (OR=4.88, 95%CI: 2.03-11.71; OR=1.70, 95%CI: 1.06-2.72, respectively). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of sleep disturbances in elementary school students in Wenzhou was 26.07%. There is a significant interaction between sleep disturbances and a high GR of myopia, suggesting that a high GR of myopia may increase children’s sensitivity to sleep disturbances. This study indicates that children with a high GR of myopia need to achieve adequate sleep duration and excellent sleep quality.

    • Botulinum toxin augmented bilateral lateral rectus recession versus three muscles surgery in large-angle intermittent exotropia

      2022, 15(10):1665-1670. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.15

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      Abstract:AIM: To report the surgical outcomes of correcting large angle intermittent exotropia in adult patients by bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession with intraoperative use of botulinum toxin and to compare the results with those of bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession and unilateral medial rectus resection. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent surgical correction of large angle intermittent exotropia [exotropia >50 prism dioptre (PD)] were retrospectively reviewed. Two groups of patients were identified; Group I (21 patients) had bilateral lateral recti recession augmented with intraoperative botulinum toxin A (BTA) injection into the recessed muscles and group II (30 patients) were treated by bilateral lateral recti recession with unilateral medial rectus muscle resection. Preoperative data were extracted for age, gender, refraction, type of exotropia, angle of stereopsis and angle of deviation. The main outcome measures were the postoperative angle of deviation and stereoacuity angle by Titmus test measured at the end of one year of postoperative follow up. RESULTS: By the end of the first postoperative year, 10 patients in group I (47.6%) and 20 patients in group II (66.7%) achieved esotropia/esophoria <5 PD or exotropia/exophoria <10 PD. The difference in surgical success rate was not statistically significant (P=0.1) but there was a statistically significant higher rate of undercorrection in group I (P=0.03). On the other hand, 3 patients in group I (14.3%) and 5 patients in group II (16.7%) had improved stereopsis; this difference in the sensory outcome was not statistically significant (P=0.8). In the BTA augmented surgery group, good stereoacuity and smaller preoperative angle of deviation were associated with significantly higher surgical success rate (P=0.004, 0.01 respectively). CONCLUSION: BTA augmented bilateral lateral recti recession is associated with higher rate of undercorrection as compared to bilateral lateral recti recession with unilateral medial rectus resection in the correction of large angle intermittent exotropia. The surgical success rate in BTA augmented surgery group is observed to be higher in patients with preoperative smaller angle of deviation and in patients with good stereoacuity.

    • Refractive outcomes and optical quality of PRESBYOND laser-blended vision for presbyopia correction

      2022, 15(10):1671-1675. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.16

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      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the one-year refractive outcomes and optical quality following PRESBYOND laser-blended vision (LBV). METHODS: This retrospective study included 20 patients who underwent PRESBYOND treatment between Jan 2019 and Aug 2020. The patients were asked to attend a follow-up outpatient visit one year after surgery. Distance and near visual acuity as well as subjective refraction were examined. Optical quality was assessed using wavefront-supported custom ablation. A questionnaire evaluating optical quality and satisfaction was completed at the last visit. RESULTS: The average patient age was 48.1±7.4y (range, 41 to 58y). The mean preoperative spherical equivalent was -7.59±2.39 D. At the one-year follow-up, two eyes (both dominant eyes) lost one line of corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), while the remaining eyes (38/40) maintained or gained lines of CDVA. The average binocular uncorrected distance visual acuity improved from 0.15±0.03 to 0.90±0.26 (decimal vision; P<0.001). The average binocular uncorrected near visual acuity increased from 0.34±0.28 to 0.97±0.07 (P<0.001). The spherical aberration was 0.04±0.06 μm in the nondominant eye and 0.09±0.09 μm in the dominant eye (P=0.02). All patients were satisfied with or accepted the outcomes of the surgery. The primary complaints were related to disturbances in night vision and relatively inferior near vision. CONCLUSION: Over the one-year observation period, PRESBYOND is a safe and effective option for presbyopia correction. The optical quality and near vision deserve further investigation.

    • Microbial spectrum and risk factors of endogenous endophthalmitis in a tertiary center of Northern China

      2022, 15(10):1676-1682. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.17

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      Abstract:AIM: To study the clinical features, microbial spectrum, associated factors and prognosis of endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) in a group of Chinese patients. METHODS: The medical records from 32 eyes of 29 patients diagnosed with EE in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2009 to October 2019 were reviewed. RESULTS: The initial visual acuity (VA) of 30 eyes in this study was worse than 20/400. Twenty-three eyes were diagnosed with fungal endophthalmitis and nine with bacterial endophthalmitis. The most common fungal and bacterial isolates were Candida and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively. Several rare fungi and bacteria species were also isolated from our patients, including Cryptococcus, Paecilomyces, Brucella, and Bacillus licheniformis. The leading risk factor for EE was diabetes. The most common extraocular infection locus was genitourinary tract. Vitrectomy was performed on twenty-nine eyes. Eight eyes achieved final VA of 20/400 or better. EE caused by Candida had a better prognosis. CONCLUSION: The visual outcome of EE is based on pathogens and prompt intervention. Early vitrectomy and antimicrobial treatment are beneficial for EE.

    • Globe penetration during loco-regional anesthesia: prevalence and review of cases

      2022, 15(10):1683-1690. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.18

      Abstract (359) HTML (0) PDF 1.37 M (264) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To describe prevalence and different clinical signs and management of cases with penetrating eye injuries during loco-regional anesthesia for ophthalmic surgery. METHODS: A retrospective review of clinical records was carried out, identifying cases of globe penetration secondary to peribulbar anesthesia injection during 5y activity in Centro de Oftalmología Barraquer. RESULTS: A total of 17 460 needle-based ocular anesthesia procedures were performed in our centre and 4 cases of globe penetration were recorded with an estimated prevalence of 0.024%. Globe penetrations were always detected in the first 24h after surgery. Vitreous haemorrhage was found in all the cases. Two eyes presented retinal detachment and two eyes choroidal detachment (CD). The initial surgical approach was performed within the first 48h. Silicone oil was used as tamponade in three eyes and the fourth case remained only with air. Detachments were solved successfully in all the cases. Functional results varied among cases, depending on ocular remarkable antecedent and globe penetration with or without retinal or CD. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of globe penetration during loco-regional anesthesia is low in our centre. Physicians should consider the possibility of globe penetration in eyes with postoperative atypical appearance after loco-regional anesthesia. Immediate B-scan ultrasonography is recommended in suspicious cases with a dense vitreous haemorrhage. An early vitrectomy surgery in conjunction with laser or cryotherapy at the penetration sites is essential for good anatomical and functional results.

    • >Investigation
    • Investigation of children’s habits of smartphone usage and parental awareness of myopia control in underdeveloped areas of China

      2022, 15(10):1691-1698. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.19

      Abstract (506) HTML (0) PDF 519.68 K (326) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To investigate the behaviors of smartphone usage and parental knowledge of vision health among primary students in the rural areas of China. METHODS: In this school-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 52 606 parents of students from 30 primary schools in the Xingguo County were investigated through an online questionnaire from July 2020 to August 2020. The self-designed questionnaire contained three parts: the demographic factors of both children and parents, parental knowledge and attitude toward myopia, and the preventive treatment of myopia. RESULTS: A total of 52 485 appropriately answered questionnaires were received, showing an effective response rate of 95.1%. The average age of the primary students was 10.1±0.98y and the prevalence of myopia among the primary students was 40.3%. The age of myopia occurrence in elementary students was significantly correlated with the parents’ educational level (95%CI: 0.82-0.98, P=0.013), children’s gender (95%CI: 1.08-1.20, P<0.001), school location (county or countryside) (95%CI: 0.59-0.66, P<0.001), children’s smartphone ownership (95%CI: 1.09-1.26, P<0.001), and the average time spent on smartphone per day (95%CI: 0.78-0.88, P<0.001). School location in the county town, high family income, and high parents’ educational level significantly affected both parents’ myopia awareness and children’s vision-threatening behaviors (P<0.01). Left-behind children showed a higher incidence of vision-threatening habits than those who lived with their parents (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The results reveal the current situation of myopia development among rural primary school students and their parents. This survey will serve as a guidance for designing myopic prevention policies in the rural areas of China.

    • >Meta-Analysis
    • Effectiveness of peripheral defocus spectacle lenses in myopia control: a Meta-analysis and systematic review

      2022, 15(10):1699-1706. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.20

      Abstract (756) HTML (0) PDF 1.51 M (360) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of peripheral defocus spectacle lenses (PDLs) in myopia control. METHODS: Literature retrieval on PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science databases, and the search time limit was from the establishment of each database to December 29, 2021 were conducted. Change of spherical equivalent refraction (SER) and axial change (AL) were extracted from the literatures that met the inclusion criteria, and RevMan5.3 software was used for Meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in this Meta-analysis, involving 770 myopic children. The results showed that PDLs could delay the progression of myopia in children with myopia compared with single vision spectacle lenses (SVLs; WMD=0.21 D, 95%CI: 0.01, 0.41, P=0.04). However, there was no significant difference in controlling the growth of axial length (AL) in myopic children (WMD=-0.10 mm, 95%CI: -0.21, 0.01, P=0.07). The results of the effectiveness of myopia control between the two spectacle lenses showed that PDLs were more effective in controlling the progression of myopia (OR=5.73, 95%CI: 2.58, 12.70, P<0.001) and delaying the growth of AL (OR=44.25, 95%CI: 8.84, 221.58, P<0.001) than SVLs, and the differences were statistically significant. CONCLUSION: PDLs can control the progression of myopia compared with SVLs, but cannot delay the growth of AL, and the effectiveness of PDLs in myopia control better than SVLs.

    • >Brief Report
    • Outcomes after combined excisional goniotomy and manual small incision cataract surgery

      2022, 15(10):1707-1713. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.21

      Abstract (333) HTML (0) PDF 1.69 M (539) Comment (0) Favorites

      Abstract:AIM: To report the long-term outcomes of combined excisional goniotomy and manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS). METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of patients with open angle glaucoma and visually significant cataracts that underwent combined excisional goniotomy and MSICS with one-year follow-up. The medical history, demographic information, and clinical characteristics of each case were recorded. Data regarding changes in vision, intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of glaucoma medications, and the evolution of the disease after surgery were reported. RESULTS: Three patients, with open angle glaucoma and cataracts underwent combined excisional goniotomy and MSICS without adverse events. All patients had improvement in vision compared to baseline measurements. The range of IOP at baseline was from 14 to 18 mm Hg and decrease to a range of 10 to 14 mm Hg after one year of follow-up. Additionally, two patients also decreased their dependence on IOP-lowering medications at the last follow up visit with one patient maintaining baseline level of medication use. CONCLUSION: A combination of excisional goniotomy and MSICS illustrates both the safety and efficacy to treat patients with visually significant cataract and glaucoma. This procedure allows for a more cost-effective surgical approach that matches the needs of resource strained territories around the globe.

    • >Letter to the Editor
    • Ahmed glaucoma implant and augmented MicroPulse transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in a monocular Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome patient with glaucoma

      2022, 15(10):1714-1716. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.22

      Abstract (375) HTML (0) PDF 534.43 K (223) Comment (0) Favorites


    • Focal choroidal excavation complicated with choroidal neovascularization: a case report and review of the literature

      2022, 15(10):1717-1719. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.23

      Abstract (402) HTML (0) PDF 1.58 M (258) Comment (0) Favorites


    • Macular hole closure induced by intravitreal injection in diabetic macular edema

      2022, 15(10):1720-1722. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.24

      Abstract (416) HTML (0) PDF 482.14 K (217) Comment (0) Favorites


    • Paracentral acute middle maculopathy secondary to high intraocular pressure: a case report

      2022, 15(10):1723-1725. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.25

      Abstract (337) HTML (0) PDF 968.65 K (244) Comment (0) Favorites


    • On-treatment isolated superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis complicated with carotid cavernous fistula: a case report

      2022, 15(10):1726-1728. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.10.26

      Abstract (337) HTML (0) PDF 814.66 K (228) Comment (0) Favorites


Editors-in-Chief: Yan-Nian Hui and Peter Wiedemann

Established in April, 2008

ISSN 2222-3959 print

ISSN 2227-4898 online

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