Editors-in-Chief: Yan-Nian Hui and Peter Wiedemann
Established in April, 2008
ISSN 2222-3959 print
ISSN 2227-4898 online
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2022, 15(8):1221-1230. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.01
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate celastrol’s effect on choroidal neovascularization (CNV). METHODS: In this study, neovascular formation in vitro (tube formation and aortic ring culture) and in vivo (laser induced neovascular in mice) was treated with celastrol to evaluate this natural compound’s impact on CNV. Western blot was applied to explore the possible mechanism for it. For in vitro assay, triplicate for each group was repeated at least three times. For in vivo assay, each group contains 5 mice. RESULTS: Celastrol supressed tube formation and aortic ring sprout neovascularization. In vitro assay exhibited that celastrol inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human choroidal endothelial cells, and by blocking VEGF signaling. Furthermore, intraperitoneal administration of celastrol significantly reduced the area of laser-induced CNV in an in vivo mouse model. By day 14, the area of CNV had decreased by 49.15% and 80.26% in the 0.1 mg/kg celastrol-treated group (n=5) and in the 0.5 mg/kg celastrol treated group (n=5), respectively, compared to the vehicle-treated group (n=5). CONCLUSION: Celastrol inhibits CNV by inhibiting VEGF-induced proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells, indicating that celastrol is a potent, natural therapeutic compound for the prevention of CNV.
2022, 15(8):1231-1239. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.02
Abstract:AIM: To elucidate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor-165b (VEGF-165b) in blood-retinal barrier (BRB) injury in the rat acute glaucoma model. METHODS: In this study, the rat acute high intraocular pressure (HIOP) model was established before and after intravitreous injection of anti-VEGF-165b antibody. The expression of VEGF-165b and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in rat retina was detected by double immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting, and the breakdown of BRB was detected by Evans blue (EB) dye. RESULTS: The intact retina of rats expressed VEGF-165b and ZO-1 protein, which were mainly located in the retinal ganglion cell layer and the inner nuclear layer and were both co-expressed with vascular endothelial cell markers CD31. After acute HIOP, the expression of VEGF-165b was up-regulated; the expression of ZO-1 was down-regulated at 12h and then recovered at 3d; EB leakage increased, peaking at 12h. After intravitreous injection of anti-VEGF-165b antibody, the expression of VEGF-165b protein was no significantly changed; and the down-regulation of the expression of ZO-1 was more obvious; EB leakage became more serious, peaking at 3d. EB analysis also showed that EB leakage in the peripheral retina was greater than that in the central retina. CONCLUSION: The endogenous VEGF-165b protein may protect the BRB from acute HIOP by regulating the expression of ZO-1. The differential destruction of BRB after acute HIOP may be related to the selective loss of retinal ganglion cells.
2022, 15(8):1240-1248. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.03
Abstract:AIM: To investigate potential gene changes in trabecular meshwork (TM) induced by dexamethasone (DEX) in steroid-induced glaucoma (SIG). METHODS: The expression data of 24 cases from a public functional genomics data were sorted to identify the mechanisms of action of DEX on the TM. The relationships of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were enriched using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. In addition, the hub genes were screened by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes Database (STRING) and Cytoscape tools. Finally, human TM cells (HTMCs) were treated with DEX to preliminarily explore the function of hub genes. RESULTS: Totally 47 DEGs, including 21 downregulated and 26 upregulated genes were identified. The primary enriched results of the DEGs consisted of inflammatory response, extracellular matrix (ECM), negative regulation of cell proliferation, TNF signalling pathway and the regulation of tryptophan channels by inflammatory mediators. Subsequently, pro-melanin-enriched hormone (PMCH) and Bradykinin B1 receptor (BDKRB1) were screened as hub genes. It is verified in GSE37474 data set. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results showed that protein and RNA expression levels of BDKRB1 were significantly decreased after DEX treatment, while PMCH was not significantly changed. CONCLUSION: BDKRB1 may be a key gene involved in SIG onset, providing a suitable therapeutic target for improving the prognosis of SIG patients.
2022, 15(8):1249-1253. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.04
Abstract:AIM: To report an atypical Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) family with typical ocular signs of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). METHODS: A patient with visible avascular area and obvious non-perfusion zone in the peripheral retina with systemic signs of AOS was reported. Familial and personal characteristics were collected for the patient and his sister. Gene sequencing and ophthalmic examinations including fluorescein angiography were all performed for the whole family. RESULTS: Two novel mutations of DOCK6 (c.1396C>T and c.4796G>A) were identified in the proband and his family, and two compound heterozygous mutations were revealed in the proband and his sister. The patient and his sister showed physical deformities and mental abnormalities while FEVR mimicking retinal disorder can also be defined. No remarkable ocular or systemic abnormality can be observed for their parents. Peripheral retinal non-perfusion area, obvious abnormal vascularization or even retinal fold were observed in the proband and his sister, while only small avascular zone was identified for their parents. CONCLUSION: This is the first genetic authenticated AOS case mimicked as FEVR with genetic sequencing of a family. For the patients with ocular phenotype of FEVR, further examination should be performed if the systemic or mental abnormalities exist.
2022, 15(8):1254-1260. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.05
Abstract:AIM: To compare frontalis sling and tarsoconjunctival mullerectomy plus levator resection (TCMLR) in subjects with severe unilateral congenital ptosis with poor levator function (LF). METHODS: A prospective non-randomized non-blinded single center clinical trial. Fifty patients with severe unilateral congenital ptosis with poor LF were recruited. The frontalis sling and TCMLR were performed and the functional, cosmetic outcomes, complications, and success rate were evaluated at 1, 3, and 6mo postoperatively. The t-test, Chi-square, Fishers exact, and nonparametric Mann-Whitney tests were used by SPSS software. RESULTS: Frontalis sling and TCMLR procedures were performed on 26 and 24 patients respectively. The mean age was 10.97±10.67y. LF was significantly better in the TCMLR group at months 1, 3, and 6 (P=0.002). Lagophthalmos was more common in the TCMLR group (no significant difference). At month 3, mild punctate epithelial erosions were observed more in the frontalis sling group (P=0.002). Significant complete success rate of 1st and 6th month for the frontalis sling vs TCMLR groups were 50% vs 20.8% (P=0.02), and 38.4% vs 50% (P=0.03) respectively. CONCLUSION: Complete success rate of TCMLR is higher in long-term follow-up in contrast with the frontalis sling in the short-term. Transient complications are more detected in mid-term follow-ups in both groups.
2022, 15(8):1261-1265. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.06
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and corticosteroid-sparing capabilities of methotrexate (MTX) in the treatment of chronic non-necrotizing anterior scleritis in Chinese patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all patients with active anterior scleritis between January 2015 and June 2019 was conducted. All patients received 10 to 15 mg/wk MTX orally, and corticosteroids (10 to 40 mg/d prednisolone or equivalent methylprednisolone) with slow tapering. Topical corticosteroid eye drops (1% prednisolone actate, 0.1% dexmathosone or 0.1% fluoromethalone) were applied to control comorbid anterior uveitis at presentation or during follow up. The main outcomes were inflammation control and corticosteroid-sparing success, and secondary outcomes were reduction of immunosuppression load and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). RESULTS: Thirty-two eyes (22 patients) were included. The proportion of patients who achieved corticosteroid-sparing success was 50.0% at 3mo and 77.3% at 12mo [8 (36.4%) patients discontinued corticosteroid]. The proportion of eyes that achieved inflammation control was 59.4% at 3mo and 78.1% at 12mo. The immunosuppression load was 5.14±0.87 at presentation and 2.76±2.34 at 12mo (P<0.01). BCVA maintained unchanged or improved in 29 (90.6%) of all affected eyes. One patient discontinued MTX treatment because of an abnormal liver function test, and no other serious adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSION: According to this pilot study, low dose MTX appear to be a well-tolerated and effective treatment for chronic non-necrotizing anterior scleritis patients in the Chinese population.
2022, 15(8):1266-1272. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.07
Abstract:AIM: To explore the possibility of deploying three contactless devices (static and rotating Scheimpflug technology, spectral domain optical coherence tomography) for measuring central corneal thickness (CCT) in preoperative and postoperative examinations of cataract patients. METHODS: Totally 72 patients who had undergone surgery without complications were selected. The CCT was measured prior to the operation, as well as on the first, 5th-7th and 28th day following the operation using the Nidek NT 530-P, Sirius®, and Topcon OCT-2000 devices. RESULTS: A significant postoperative increase and subsequent decrease in CCT was identified with all three devices. The correlations were highly significant and thus reflect a very good degree of comparability at all times with the exception of the rotating Scheimpflug camera. The postoperative results from the latter differed significantly from the other devices. The correlations were Sirius/Topcon (P=0.010) and Sirius/Nidek (P<0.0005). No statistically significant difference could be identified in the comparison between Topcon and Nidek (P=0.056). CONCLUSION: All three devices are suitable for postoperative monitoring of CCT. The measurement results are only comparable to a limited extent and not interchangeable in the course of treating a single patient. This is due to the different imaging technology used in the devices and the resulting modalities for conducting the measurements.
2022, 15(8):1273-1278. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.08
Abstract:AIM: To investigate the surgical outcomes of patients with chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG) treated with phacoemulsification (phaco)/endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP) with and without endoscopic goniosynechialysis (E-GSL). METHODS: A retrospective, nonrandomized, comparative case series was conducted. Patients with CACG who underwent phaco in combination with either ECP alone (ECP group) or GSL with ECP (E-GSL group) from 2018 to 2019 were followed for 12mo and reviewed. Clinical features and outcomes were identified and analyzed. The ECP and E-GSL groups were matched in age and baseline intraocular pressure (IOP). Changes in IOP, mean of visual acuity (VA), peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) formation, and the number of glaucoma medications was examined. RESULTS: The ECP group included 32 eyes of 27 patients, and the E-GSL group included 32 eyes of 26 patients. The preoperative baseline IOP was 22.18±6.48 mm Hg in the ECP group and 22.95±6.71 mm Hg in the E-GSL group (P=0.644). The mean IOP reduction was 26.2% in the ECP group and 41.6% in the E-GSL group at 12mo. The mean postoperative VA (logMAR units) at 12mo was 0.47 in the ECP group and 0.36 in the E-GSL group. The reduction in PAS formation and the number of glaucoma medications was also higher in the ECP group than E-GSL group at 12mo. CONCLUSION: The phaco/ECP and phaco/E-GSL groups both achieve a significant reduction in IOP without complications associated with traditional glaucoma filtration surgeries.
2022, 15(8):1279-1289. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.09
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate outcomes and determine factors influencing the outcomes of vitrectomy with silicone oil (SO) endotamponade for the management of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) complicated by advanced proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). METHODS: This is a retrospective, interventional case series of eyes with PVR grade C associated RRD with or without prior surgery that underwent vitreoretinal surgery and SO tamponade. Eyes with a minimum follow-up of 6mo after SO extraction were included. Eyes were classified into three PVR subgroups according to severity and extension of proliferation. The influence of several preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative factors upon the functional and anatomical outcomes was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A hundred and one eyes of 101 patients that met the inclusion criteria were studied. Seventy-five of 101 eyes (74.3%) had successful retinal reattachment after one operation. Increased aqueous cell and flare at the first week exam had a statistically significant association with redetachment, recurrent membrane proliferation and keratopathy. Visual acuity improvement was significantly associated with faint postoperative aqueous inflammation values, primary vitrectomy and PVR outside of the posterior pole. CONCLUSION: Although encouraging anatomical and functional outcomes are achieved after vitrectomy and SO tamponade in eyes with RRD complicated by PVR, an increase in aqueous flare or cells at the first week follow-up is most likely to result in postoperative late complications. Primary vitrectomy, PVR associated with minimal posterior pole extension and absent to mild postoperative aqueous inflammation are associated with improved post-operative final visual acuity.
2022, 15(8):1290-1295. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.10
Abstract:AIM: To report the postoperative axial length (AL) changes in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment combined with choroidal detachment (RRD-CD) patients. METHODS: The medical records of 97 consecutive patients from January 2015 to December 2018 were reviewed. Patients included were divided into RRD-CD and RRD only groups. All patients had received AL measurements before pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and before silicone oil removal (SOR). The changes in AL of the two groups were compared. In addition, the potential factors related to AL changes were analyzed. RESULTS: AL elongation after PPV was 1.01 mm [interquartile range (IQR): 0.37, 1.79; P=0.02] in the RRD-CD group, which was greater than in RRD only group (0.15 mm, IQR: 0.04, 0.41; P<0.001). AL increased 0.06 mm per 1 mm Hg intraocular pressure changes in the RRD-CD group (R2=0.11, P=0.03). RRD-CD patient was 11.42 times (3.54-46.80) more likely to experience post-PPV AL elongation of more than 1 mm [P<0.001, Akaike information criterion (AIC)=92.33, area under the curve (AUC)=0.839]. CONCLUSION: RRD-CD patients are very likely to have a postoperative elongation of AL. The primary intraoclular lens implantation using presurgery AL data may cause a significant refractive error in RRD-CD patients who underwent PPV.
2022, 15(8):1296-1304. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.11
Abstract:AIM: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) in patients with macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO-ME). METHODS: Twenty-eight eyes from twenty-eight treatment-naïve patients (14 males and 14 females) with RVO-ME were included in this retrospective study. The retinal vein occlusion (RVO) was comprised of both central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO, n=14) and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO, n=14). Intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF reagents were administered monthly for three consecutive months, in which 18 patients were injected with ranibizumab and 10 patients were injected with conbercept. All eyes were imaged with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) at baseline and 1wk after monthly intravitreal anti-VEGF injection. The visual acuity (VA), central macular thickness (CMT), the number of hyperreflective foci (HRF) recognized as an inflammatory sign in OCT images, and non-perfusion area (NPA), were compared before and after anti-VEGF treatments. RESULTS: The mean interval between baseline and follow-up was 29.4±0.79 (range, 27-48)d. Compared with the baseline, the VA improved (logMAR 1.5±0.1 vs 0.8±0.1, P<0.05) and CMT decreased (460±34.0 μm vs 268.8±12.0 μm, P<0.05), significantly, after anti-VEGF treatment. The number of HRF was decreased significantly (76.5±4.8 vs 47.8±4.3, P<0.05) after anti-VEGF treatment. CONCLUSION: Anti-VEGF therapy is effective in treating RVO-ME. The mechanisms for the decreased HRF and the reduction of NPA by anti-VEGF therapy merits further exploration.
2022, 15(8):1305-1309. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.12
Abstract:AIM: To compare the efficacy of vitrectomy combined with air or silicone oil in the treatment of idiopathic macular hole (IMH). METHODS: According to the results of high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT), 75 cases (75 eyes) of IMH in stage II-IV (Gass stage) in the General Hospital of Chinese PLA from January 2017 to December 2019 were collected for this retrospective study. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and minimum diameter of IMH (MMHD) were measured. Eyes underwent vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling operation, and were divided into disinfection air group (30 eyes) and silicone oil group (45 eyes) according to the intraocular tamponade. For MMHD≤400 μm (MMHD1), there were 23 eyes in air group and 16 eyes in silicone oil group. For MMHD2>400 μm (MMHD2), there were 7 eyes in air group and 29 eyes in silicone oil group. One month after surgery, the closure rates of IMH and BCVA were compared and analyzed. According to HD-OCT, the closure shape was graded with A (bridge closure) and B (good closure). RESULTS: The closure rates of air group and silicone oil group were 86.67% and 95.56% respectively with no significant difference (P>0.05); For MMHD1, those of air group and silicone oil group were 95.65% and 100% respectively with no significant difference (P>0.05); For MMHD2, those of air group and silicone oil group were 57.14% and 93.10% respectively, and those of the silicone oil group were higher than the air group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the closure shape grade between MMHD1 air group and silicone oil group (P>0.05). The proportion of Grade B in MMHD2 silicone oil group was higher than that in the air group (P<0.05). BCVA of each group after operation was better than that before operation, and there was no significant difference between air group and silicone oil group. While among them, MMHD1 air group was better than silicone oil group (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between MMHD2 air group and silicone oil group (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: For smaller IMH (≤400 μm), the efficacy of vitrectomy combined with air should be considered better than silicone oil; for larger IMH (>400 μm), the efficacy of silicone oil may be better than air.
2022, 15(8):1310-1315. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.13
Abstract:AIM: To investigate the risk of exudative retinal detachment (ERD) morbidity in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) by using the logistic regression combined with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. METHODS: A total of 46 patients with ERD and 142 patients with non-ERD were diagnosed as PIH from January 2017 to February 2020. A retrospective comparison of the clinical manifestations and laboratory tests were conducted. The risk of ERD morbidity with PIH was predicted by using logistic regression combined with an ROC curve model. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in age and body mass index between the two groups before pregnancy (P>0.05). However, significant differences were found in gestational weeks, duration of hypertension, maximum and minimum systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), and plasma total protein (PTP) concentration between the two groups (P<0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the maximum systolic BP (OR=1.050, 95%CI: 1.016-1.085) and PTP concentration (OR=0.764, 95%CI: 0.702-0.832) were independent prediction risks of ERD in PIH. The sensitivities of maximum systolic BP, PTP concentration and combined diagnosis were 0.717, 0.870, and 0.870, respectively; the specificities were 0.617, 0.837, and 0.908, respectively; the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.707 (95%CI: 0.622-0.792), 0.917 (95%CI: 0.868-0.967), and 0.933 (95%CI: 0.890-0.975), respectively; the AUC of combined diagnosis was higher than that of single diagnosis (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Logistic regression and ROC curve model combined with maximum systolic BP and PTP can improve the early identification of high-risk PIH patients in the hospital.
2022, 15(8):1316-1321. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.14
Abstract:AIM: To explore the risk factors of oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) in patients with intracranial aneurysm (IA) and develop a nomogram model for predicting ONP of IA patients. METHODS: A total of 329 IA patients were included. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify independent factors, which were then integrated into the nomogram model. The performance of the nomogram model was evaluated by calibration curve, receiver operating curve (ROC), and decision curve analysis. RESULTS: Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm [hazard ratio (HR)=17.13, P<0.001] and aneurysm diameter (HR=1.31, P<0.001) were independent risk factors of ONP in IA patients. Based on the results of logistic regression analysis, a nomogram model for predicting the ONP in IA patients was constructed. The calibration curve indicated the nomogram had a good agreement between the predictions and observations. The nomogram showed a high predictive accuracy and discriminative ability with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.863. The decision curve analysis showed that the nomogram was powerful in the clinical decision. PCoA aneurysm (HR=3.38, P=0.015) was identified to be the only independent risk factor for ONP severity. CONCLUSION: PCoA aneurysm and aneurysm diameter are independent risk factors of ONP in IA patients. The nomogram established is performed reliably and accurately for predicting ONP. PCoA aneurysm is the only independent risk factor for ONP severity.
2022, 15(8):1322-1330. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.15
Abstract:AIM: To explore the photopic pupil size behavior in myopic children undergoing overnight orthokeratology (ortho-k) over 1-year period and its effects on the axial elongation. METHODS: A total of 202 Chinese myopic children were enrolled in this prospective clinical trial. Ninety-five subjects in ortho-k group and eighty-eight subjects in spectacle group completed the 1-year study. Axial length (AL) was measured before enrollment and every 6mo after the start of ortho-k. The photopic pupil diameter (PPD) was determined using the Pentacam AXL and measured in an examination room with lighting of 300-310 Lx. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify variables contribution to axial elongation. RESULTS: Compared with spectacle group, the average 1-year axial elongation was significantly slower in the ortho-k group (0.25±0.27 vs 0.44±0.23 mm, P<0.0001). In ortho-k group, PPDs significantly decreased from 4.21±0.62 mm to 3.94±0.53 mm after 1mo of lens wear (P=0.001, Bonferroni correction) and the change lasts for 3-month visit. No significantly change during the other follow-up visits was found (P>0.05, Bonferroni correction). The 4.81 mm PPD may be a possible cutoff point in the ortho-k group. Subjects with PPD below or equal to 4.81 mm tended to have smaller axial elongation compared to subjects with PPD above 4.81 mm after 1-year period (t=-3.09, P=0.003). In ortho-k group, univariate analyses indicated that those with older age, greater degree of myopia, longer AL, smaller baseline PPD (PPDbaseline) experienced a smaller change in AL. In multivariate analyses, older age, greater AL and smaller PPDbaseline were associated with smaller increases in AL. In spectacle group, PPD tended to be stable (P>0.05, Bonferroni correction) and did not affect axial growth. CONCLUSION: PPDs experience significantly decreases at 1-month and 3-month ortho-k treatment. Children with smaller PPD tend to experience slower axial elongation and may benefit more from ortho-k.
2022, 15(8):1331-1337. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.16
Abstract:AIM: To introduce a novel measurement method of static cyclotorsion in small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and to investigate the effect of preoperative parameters on cyclotorsion and the effect of cyclotorsion on postoperative outcomes. METHODS: The medical records of 242 patients and 484 eyes who underwent SMILE surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative intraocular pressure, refractive error, and corneal thickness were investigated. Refractive values and visual acuity were measured at 1d, 1, 3, and 6mo. Ocular cyclotorsion in the supine position was measured by calculating the location and angle of the incision site of the cornea in the anterior slit photograph taken after surgery. RESULTS: Of the total 484 eyes in 242 patients, preoperative mean spherical equivalent (SE) was -4.10±1.64 D, and the mean astigmatism was -0.82±0.74 D. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCVA) and SE improved significantly after the surgery. Moreover, 219 (45.2%) eyes had excyclotorsion, 235 (48.6%) eyes had incyclotorsion, and 30 (6.2%) eyes had no torsion. The right eyes tended to be excyclotorted, and the left eyes tended to be incyclotorted (P<0.01). The mean cyclotorsion was 1.18°±3.69°, and the mean absolute value of cyclotorsion was 3.14°±2.26°. The range of cyclotorsion was 0.5°–11.4°. It was found that the smaller the preoperative sphere, the higher the amount of cyclotorsion (r=0.11, P=0.016). There was no significant association between the amount of cyclotorsion and preoperative astigmatism. There was no correlation between sex, preoperative corneal thickness, preoperative intraocular pressure, amount of cyclotorsion, and direction of cyclotorsion. The ratio of right eye excyclotorsion and left eye incyclotorsion on 1d was higher than that at 1, 3, and 6mo (all P<0.01). There was no difference between the 1, 3, and 6mo results in the right and left eyes (P=0.15, P=0.16, respectively). CONCLUSION: The newly devised ocular cyclotorsion measurement method can be used to evaluate ocular cyclotorsion after SMILE. Preoperative SE is associated with the amount of cyclotorsion, however, cyclotorsion doesn’t have a significant effect on the results of SMILE surgery.
2022, 15(8):1338-1343. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.17
Abstract:AIM: To investigate the characteristics of near-work-related esotropia and the clinical efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) injection therapy on it. METHODS: A total of 107 patients aged 15-57y with near-work-related esotropia were taken as the BTXA-treated group, and 30 other peers without near-work-related esotropia were included in the control group. All participants were refractive corrected to analyse the clinical characteristics of near-work-related esotropia. All subjects were examined including Worth4 spot examination, stereoscopic vision, strabismus angle, accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio (AC/A), far and near positive and negative convergence, positive and negative fusion range, positive and negative relative accommodation. Clinical efficacy was evaluated at a period of 10mo follow-up. RESULTS: The distant and near stereopsis were found in 84.9% and 77.5% of patients in the BTXA-treated group, respectively. In the control group, all patients had distant and near stereopsis. The incidence of taking off one’s glasses to see close objects was significantly higher in the BTXA-treated group than in the control group (P<0.05). The BTXA-treated group showed a smaller range of in-fusion (9.84±5.72)° than the control group (22.04±8.71)° (P<0.05). The near esotropia angle of the BTXA-treated group (17.08±11.98)△ was significantly smaller than the distant esotropia angle (19.07±11.68)△ (P<0.05). Ten months after injection, the diplopia and esotropia of most patients underwent improvements after treatment (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: This study reveals that the accommodation function and the habit of near work without wearing spectacles are associated with near-work-related esotropia, while the length of time for near work and the onset time are independent of near-work-related esotropia. Additionally, BTXA injection therapy plays a vital role in relieving diplopia and restoring eye position.
2022, 15(8):1344-1351. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.18
Abstract:AIM: To assess the retinal vasculature alterations in indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (ITON) patients following craniofacial trauma by optic coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: Patients diagnosed of monocular ITON were recruited from August 2016 to May 2020. OCTA was performed using the AngioVue OCT-A system for two cube scans centered at the optic nerve head and fovea. OCTA data included thicknesses of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC), as well as proportion of capillary perfusion and data were analyzed for correlation with post-injury timepoints: within 7, 8-30, 31-90, and 91-365d. RESULTS: A total of 73 ITON patients were studied. Significant thinning of RNFL and GCC layers and attenuation of microvascular perfusion were observed in ITON eyes as compared to contralateral unaffected eyes (for most of the analyzed sectors and quadrants, P<0.05). Without respect to surgical intervention and vision recovery, the decrease in retinal layer thicknesses and microvascular perfusion was time-dependent, and most significant within three months (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: ITON presents with time-dependent thinning of retinal layers and attenuation of microvasculature, indicating possible degeneration of retinal ganglion cells due to reduced retinal blood supply.
2022, 15(8):1352-1356. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.19
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the predictive value and applicability of Ocular Trauma Score (OTS) and Pediatric Ocular Trauma Score (POTS) for closed and open globe injuries in the pediatric group. METHODS: A retrospective study of closed and open globe injuries in children age of 0-18-year-old between 2012-2019 was conducted. Medical records were collected, and injuries were classified using Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS). The predictive value and applicability of both OTS and POTS to final visual acuity (VA) were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 84 patients, 59 (70.2%) presented with closed globe injuries (CGI) and 25 (29.8%) with open globe injuries (OGI). The mean of initial VA was 0.832±0.904 logMAR. OTS and POTS was calculated. Initial VA (P<0.001) and traumatic cataract (P<0.001) were significantly associated with visual outcome, followed by organic/unclean wound (P=0.001), delay of surgery (P=0.001), iris prolapse (P=0.003), and globe rupture (P=0.008). A strong correlation between OTS and POTS and final VA (r=-0.798, P<0.001; r=-0.612, P<0.001) was found. OTS was more applicable in all age group of pediatric and in contrast to POTS, it was designed for 0-15 years old. POTS requires eleven parameters and OTS six parameters. Even though initial VA was not available, we could still calculate into POTS equation. CONCLUSION: OTS and POTS are highly predictive prognostic tools for final VA in CGI and OGI’s in children.
2022, 15(8):1357-1362. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.20
Abstract:AIM: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, demographics, and visual outcomes of patients with ocular syphilis at an urban hospital to increase awareness and assist in earlier diagnosis and treatment of the resurgent disease. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with ICD-9 and ICD-10 diagnosis codes correlating with syphilis or syphilis-related ocular diseases between 2010 and 2019. Variables evaluated included age, gender, race, vision, ocular findings, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and men who have sex with men status, recreational drug and alcohol use. RESULTS: Ocular syphilis was diagnosed in 40 patients (53 eyes) of a total of 229 patients who tested positive for syphilis via serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid treponemal testing from 2010-2019. Among patients with ocular syphilis, most patients were males, aged 45 or above and Black, and had no diagnosed HIV infection. Approximately 50% patients had 20/40 vision or better. Nearly 50% had non-granulomatous anterior uveitis as their initial presentation, and 49% of patients had involvement of the posterior segment. Neovascular glaucoma (5.7%), papillitis (7.5%), vasculitis (5.7%), and retinal detachment (5.7%) were rarer presentations of the disease and were associated with a poorer visual prognosis. CONCLUSION: Given the increased prevalence and protean manifestations of syphilis, early diagnosis and treatment are paramount. More studies on ocular syphilis are warranted to understand this resurging disease.
2022, 15(8):1363-1369. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.21
Abstract:AIM: To investigate the effects of school-based comprehensive intervention on myopia development in elementary school children. METHODS: As a part of the Wenzhou Epidemiology of Refraction Error Study, there were 1524 participating elementary students (730 girls, 47.9%) in grades 1 to 3 from three campuses of one school, aged 7.3±0.9y, who were examined twice every year for a 2.5y follow up period. Comprehensive intervention and other reminders were given at school every semester for the intervention group. The control group did not receive comprehensive intervention and did not have reminders of it. RESULTS: There were 651 students in the intervention group [mean age 7.3±0.9y; 294 (45.2%) girls] and 737 students in the control group [mean age 7.2±0.9y; 346 (46.9%) girls]. Overall mean myopia progression during the 2.5y follow-up was -0.49±1.04 diopters (D) in the intervention group and -0.65±1.08 D in the control group (P=0.004). The majority that not get myopia at baseline spherical equivalent (SE≤-1.0 D). Their mean myopia progression during the 2.5y follow-up was -0.37±0.89 D in the intervention group and -0.51±0.93 D in the control group (27.5% reduction, P=0.009); Overall, mean axial length elongation was less in the intervention group (0.56±0.32 mm) than in the control group (0.61±0.38 mm, 10.5% reduction, P=0.009). The percentage of close reading distance (<30 cm) in the intervention group was less than in the control group (73.4% vs 76.2%, P<0.001), the percentage of everyday perform eye exercises in the intervention group was more than in the control group (27.8% vs 20.7%, P<0.001) 30mo later. CONCLUSION: The comprehensive intervention program at elementary school has a significant alleviating effect on myopia progression for children during the 2.5y follow-up, especially for those non-myopia at baseline.
2022, 15(8):1370-1380. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.22
Abstract:AIM: To assess the differences in average and sectoral peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with non-arteritic anterior ischemic neuropathy (NAION) compared with those with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were performed prior to October, 2021. Studies that compared the pRNFL thickness in NAION eyes with that in POAG eyes with matched mean deviation of the visual fields were included. The weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to pool continuous outcomes. RESULTS: Ten cross-sectional studies (11 datasets) comprising a total of 625 eyes (278 NAION eyes, 347 POAG eyes) were included in the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The pooled results demonstrated that the superior pRNFL was significantly thinner in NAION eyes than in POAG eyes (WMD=-6.40, 95%CI: -12.22 to -0.58, P=0.031), whereas the inferior pRNFL was significant thinner in POAG eyes than in NAION eyes (WMD=11.10, 95%CI: 7.06 to 15.14, P≤0.001). No difference was noted concerning the average, nasal, and temporal pRNFL thickness (average: WMD=1.45, 95%CI: -0.75 to 3.66, P=0.196; nasal: WMD= -2.12, 95%CI: -4.43 to 0.19, P=0.072; temporal: WMD= -1.24, 95%CI: -3.96 to 1.47, P=0.370). CONCLUSION: SD-OCT based evaluation of inferior and superior pRNFL thickness can be potentially utilized to differentiate NAION from POAG, and help to understand the different pathophysiological mechanisms between these two diseases. Further longitudinal studies and studies using eight-quadrant or clock-hour classification method are required to validate the obtained findings.
2022, 15(8):1381-1390. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.23
Abstract:AIM: To quantitatively evaluate the risk of anxiety and depression in patients with uveitis via performing a Meta-analysis. METHODS: Three electronic database (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases) were searched for studies recording data about uveitis and anxiety as well as depression simultaneously up to January 2021. The incidence rate and standard mean difference (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated to analyse the association using random-effects models based on heterogeneity tests. RESULTS: In total, 12 observational studies containing 874 patients with uveitis were included. The results showed that there was a significant association between uveitis and anxiety (SMD=0.97, 95%CI: 0.39 to 1.54, P=0.0009) and depression (SMD=0.79, 95%CI: 0.51 to 1.07, P<0.00001). The overall morbidities of anxiety and depression in patients with uveitis were 39% and 17%, respectively. With subgroup analysis, the heterogeneity actually came from different kinds of uveitis. Specifically, the incidence rates of both anxiety and depression were relatively low in patients with anterior uveitis (33% and 15%), moderate in patients with infectious uveitis (46% and 22%), and high in patients with unspecified uveitis (59% and 35%). CONCLUSION: It is preliminarily indicated that patients with uveitis may have a high risk of anxiety and depression. Ophthalmologists and psychologists should pay more attention to the psychological state when dealing with patients with uveitis. Further high-quality studies with detailed direct data are needed to draw more precise conclusions.
2022, 15(8):1391-1400. DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2022.08.24
Abstract:Retinoblastoma (RB) is a highly aggressive ocular tumor, and due to socioeconomic and medical constraints, many children receive treatment only in the metaphase and advanced clinical stages, resulting in high rates of blindness and disability. Although several approaches exist in the treatment of RB, some children with the disease do not have satisfactory results because of various factors. Plant-derived natural products have shown definite therapeutic effects in the treatment of various tumors and are also widely used in the study of RB. We review plant-derived natural products used in the study of anti-RB to provide ideas for the clinical application of these drugs and the development of new therapeutic drugs.
Editors-in-Chief: Yan-Nian Hui and Peter Wiedemann
Established in April, 2008
ISSN 2222-3959 print
ISSN 2227-4898 online