Citation:Huang YQ,Huang H,Huang RZ.A near-vision chart for children aged 3-5 years old:new designs and clinical applications.Int J Ophthalmol 2014;7(3):457-462,doi:10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2014.03.13
A near-vision chart for children aged 3-5 years old:new designs and clinical applications
Received:October 25, 2013  Revised:December 29, 2013
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Key Words:preschool children  Weber-Fechner law  Chinese national standard logarithmic near-vision chart
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Conflicts of Interest: Huang YQ, None;Huang H, None;Huang RZ,None.
Yang-Qing Huang Biomedical Engineering Institute of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an , Shaanxi Province, China
He Huang Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Wuhu , Anhui Province, China
Rong-Zhi Huang Department of Ophthalmology, the Second People’s Hospital of Anqing, Anqing , Anhui Province, China
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      AIM:To introduce a new near-vision chart for children aged 3-5 years old and its clinical applications.

    METHODS:The new near-vision chart which combined the Bailey-Lovie layout with a newly devised set of symmetry symbols was designed based on Weber-Fechner law. It consists of 15 rows of symmetry symbols, corresponding to a visual acuity range from 1.3 to 0.1 logMAR. The optotypes were red against a white background and were specially shaped four basic geometric symbols:circle, square, triangle,and cross, which matched the preschool children''s cognitive level. A regular geometric progression of the optotype sizes and distribution was employed to arrange in 15 lines. The progression rate of the optotype size between two lines was 1.2589 and two smaller groups of optotypes ranging from 0.7 to -0.1 logMAR were included for repetitive testing. A near visual acuity was recorded in logMAR or decimal, and the testing distance was 25 cm.

    RESULTS:This new near-vision chart with pediatric acuity test optotypes which consists of 4 different symbols (triangle, square, cross, and circle) met the national and international eye chart design guidelines. When performing the near visual acuity assessment in preschoolers (3-5 years old). It overcame an inability to recognize the letters of the alphabet and difficulties in designating the direction of black abstract symbols such as the tumbling ''E'' or Landolt ''C'', which the subjects were prone to lose interest in. Near vision may be recorded in different notations:decimal acuity and logMAR. These two notations can be easily converted each other in the new near-vision chart. The measurements of this new chart not only showed a significant correlation and a good consistency with the Chinese national standard logarithmic near-vision chart (r=0.932, P<0.01), but also indicated good test-retest reliability (89% of retest scores were within 0.1 logMAR units of the initial test score) and a high response rate.

    CONCLUSION:The results of this study support the validity and reliability of near visual acuity measurements using the new near-vision chart in children aged 3-5y over a wide range of visual acuities, and the new eye chart was especially suitable for the detection of amblyopia risk factors and low vision examination in children (3-5y of age). It can be applied in routine clinical practice.

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