Citation:Shang YM,Wang GS,H D. Sliney,Chang-Hao Yang,Li-Ling Lee.Light-emitting-diode induced retinal damage and its wavelength dependency in vivo.Int J Ophthalmol 2017;10(2):191-202,doi:10.18240/ijo.2017.02.03
Light-emitting-diode induced retinal damage and its wavelength dependency in vivo
Received:July 25, 2016  Revised:October 21, 2016
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DOI:10.18240/ijo.2017.02.03
Key Words:retinal light injury; LED light injury; blue light injury; iron; light injury mechanisms; oxidative stress.
Fund Project:Supported by Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology grant (No.NSC 103-2314-B-002-076-MY3).
              
AuthorInstitution
Yu-Man Shang Institute of Environmental Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10051, Taiwan, China
Gen-Shuh Wang Institute of Environmental Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10051, Taiwan, China
David H. Sliney Army Medical Department, Consulting Medical Physicist, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, MD 21010-5403, USA
Chang-Hao Yang Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University School of Medicine, Taipei 10051, Taiwan, China; Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 10051, Taiwan, China
Li-Ling Lee Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chutung, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan, China
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Abstract:
      AIM: To examine light-emitting-diode (LED)-induced retinal neuronal cell damage and its wavelength-driven pathogenic mechanisms.

    METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to blue LEDs (460 nm), green LEDs (530 nm), and red LEDs (620 nm). Electroretinography (ERG), Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, Western blotting (WB) and the detection of superoxide anion (O2-·), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), total iron, and ferric (Fe3+) levels were applied.

    RESULTS: ERG results showed the blue LED group induced more functional damage than that of green or red LED groups. H&E staining, TUNEL, IHC, and TEM revealed apoptosis and necrosis of photoreceptors and RPE, which indicated blue LED also induced more photochemical injury. Free radical production and iron-related molecular marker expressions demonstrated that oxidative stress and iron-overload were associated with retinal injury. WB assays correspondingly showed that defense gene expression was up-regulated after the LED light exposure with a wavelength dependency.

    CONCLUSION: The study results indicate that LED blue-light exposure poses a great risk of retinal injury in awake, task-oriented rod-dominant animals. The wavelength-dependent effect should be considered carefully when switching to LED lighting applications.

PMC FullText Html:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5313540/
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