Citation:Xia HQ,Yang JR,Zhang KX,Dong RL,Yuan H,Wang YC,Zhou H,Li XM.Molecules related to diabetic retinopathy in the vitreous and involved pathways.Int J Ophthalmol 2022;15(7):1180-1189,doi:10.18240/ijo.2022.07.20
Molecules related to diabetic retinopathy in the vitreous and involved pathways
Received:June 24, 2021  Revised:March 28, 2022
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DOI:10.18240/ijo.2022.07.20
Key Words:diabetic retinopathy  vitreous  molecular pathway  vascular endothelial growth factor
Fund Project:Supported by the National Science and Technology Major Project (No.2018ZX10101004); Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No.7202229).
                       
AuthorInstitution
Hua-Qin Xia Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing , China
Jia-Rui Yang Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing , China
Ke-Xin Zhang Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing , China
Rui-Lan Dong Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing , China
Hao Yuan Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing , China
Yu-Chen Wang Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing , China
Hong Zhou State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing , China
Xue-Min Li Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing , China
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Abstract:
      Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common complications of diabetes and major cause of blindness among people over 50 years old. Current studies showed that the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) played a central role in the pathogenesis of DR, and application of anti-VEGF has been widely acknowledged in treatment of DR targeting retinal neovascularization. However, anti-VEGF therapy has several limitations such as drug resistance. It is essential to develop new drugs for future clinical practice. The vitreous takes up 80% of the whole globe volume and is in direct contact with the retina, making it possible to explore the pathogenesis of DR by studying related factors in the vitreous. This article reviewed recent studies on DR-related factors in the vitreous, elaborating the VEGF upstream hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway and downstream pathways phosphatidylinositol diphosphate (PIP2), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Moreover, factors other than VEGF contributing to the pathogenesis of DR in the vitreous were also summarized, which included factors in four major systems, kallikrein-kinin system such as bradykinin, plasma kallikrein, and coagulation factor XII, oxidative stress system such as lipid peroxide, and superoxide dismutase, inflammation-related factors such as interleukin-1β/6/13/37, and interferon-γ, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) system such as MMP-9/14. Additionally, we also introduced other DR-related factors such as adiponectin, certain specific amino acids, non-coding RNA and renin (pro) receptor in separate studies.
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